350:379 Computers and Literature
Create your first web page. These exercises review the basic requirements and procedures to make a web page. We will connect to pegasus from the Hill 124 lab. You will learn to login, enter you password, use simple unix commands, create a public_html directory, use pico to create the index.html file, grant viewing permissions, and read that file in a browser.
These exercises will cover only the first step in making a web file and will not explore HTML coding. They also do not cover how to make a "remote" connection from home -- or using your own text editor, such as Windows Notepad. When you do connect from your home or office, you will need a modem or similar hardware, supporting software, and the appropriate configuration – not discussed here.
1. Connect to pegasus in a Rutgers lab.
Because there are too many different methods for making a remote connection, they will not be described here. If you live within the local telephone area of Newark, you can dial directly and be charged only for a local call. If you live further away and wish to avoid long distance telephone charges, you can subscribe to an ISP (internet service provider) such as AOL, Earthlink, Verizon, or ATT. High speed service is also available via DSL (telephone), cable, and WIFI .
Do not type the block capital words below such as SEE, TYPE or PRESS.
2. When beginning a connection to pegasus, SEE login as: and TYPE username -- your login name.
3. When you SEE username@pegasus's password: TYPE password -- which will not be echoed on the screen as you type.
4. When you SEE <pegasus> you are connected and have a Unix prompt.
5. You may SEE a message such as "You have mail.".
6. To confirm where you are TYPE pwd
7. You should SEE information in the pattern "/group/username", the names of your personal root directory
8. TYPE cd public_html -- to switch to the hypertext directory -- if it exists (it won’t exist until you make it).
9. TYPE pwd again.
10. If the hypertext directory exists already, you will SEE "/group/username/public_html". But if you SEE "/group/username" without "public_html" afterwards then the hypertext directory must be created.
11. To do this, TYPE mkdir public_html – no spaces inside "mkdir" or "public_html" or other Unix filenames (as you can in Microsoft Windows) and an underline not a dash inside "public_html."
12. Repeat steps 8. and 9 until you confirm that your working directory is "/group/username/public_html"
13. To launch pico the text editor and make the required index.html file, TYPE pico index.html .
14. Once inside the pico editor TYPE some distinctive message such as hello whirl .
15. To save and exit the file, PRESS [CTRL-X]. (Hold down the CTRL key and tap x .)
16. To confirm the save, TYPE y
17. To execute the save, the exit, and the return to pegasus, PRESS [ENTER].
18. To confirm that the index.html file exists and to SEE its date and size TYPE ls -l index.html (that’s "el" "es" space dash "el")
19. Unix requires that you must grant permission (change the mode) of this file so others can read it while only you can write to it. TYPE chmod 755 index.html -- notice that Unix almost always uses all lower case letters.
20. Launch your web browser such as Netscape or Internet Explorer in a second window, and point it to http://pegasus.rutgers.edu/~username/index.html Since both "http://" and "index.html" are understood defaults, you can also write this as "pegasus.rutgers.edu/~username/". Of couse use your own login or username!
21. The browser should display the message you typed in step 14.
22. Leaving the browser open, switch back to the first window with pegasus and do additional editing of index.html. TYPE pico index.html
23. When your message appears in editable form, add or change something. This time when you save the result you will keep the editor open.
24. PRESS [CTRL-O] (Hold down the CTRL key and tap o .).
25. PRESS [ENTER] to confirm.
26. Switch back to the second window containing your web browser.
27. To refresh the browser view, CLICK the [Refresh] button or PRESS [F5] (your browser may vary).
28. The revised message will appear. Repeat steps 23 to 27 as desired.
29. To exit pico, repeat exit steps 15 to 17.
30. To exit pegasus, PRESS [CTRL-D]. (Hold down the CTRL key and tap d .)
31. Log out of your session if in a Rutgers lab. If you have made a remote connection, be sure to disconnect. (If you forget to disconnect your remote connection, the phone company might give you a nasty surprise.)
32. Get a "cheat sheet" for basic unix commands for copy, move, delete, etc. Learn HTML coding to modify index.html and other files you may create. (There are some of HTML course tutorials you can follow online at http://www.andromeda.rutgers.edu/~ehrlich/465/. With HTML codes you can do the following:
manage blank spaces, tabs, returns, indents, paragraph breaks
preserve preformatted columns of data
change the font typeface, size, color, and enhancements
change the background color, background image, margins
make hypertext links to your favorite web pages and own web pages
add tables, frames, and forms
add graphics, sound, animation, photographs, digital movies
separate data from formatting with cascading style sheets
33. Learn the latest security procedures to upload and download your files -- to transfer them between pegasus and your PC. Keep backups of all your work. It is a good idea to create a parallel set of your pegasus files and directories (folders) on the hard disk of your home computer as well as on the floppy disk you carry around. (Since Rutgers lab time can be scarce, test your work locally before uploading it.) Be sure to designate one location as the authority and all the others as mere copies. If you spend more time working at home, make that the authority location.