JJTM: The James Joyce Text Machine: Notes on Genetic Variants

This is a hypertext sample of manuscript variants in the Calypso episode (4:321-388) in Ulysses: A Critical and Synoptic Edition, ed. Hans Walter Gabler et al, (3 vols., Garland, 1986). To indicate Joyce's additions, deletions, and manuscript levels more prominently than would be possible on the printed page, colors and screen graphics are used. In addition, some dynamic controls change the appearance on the screen of specified MSS layers.

  • Each of the genetic manuscript levels is represented in a different color.
  • Graphical markings independent of color such as underline and overline are used to call attention to Joyce's additions and deletions.
  • Editing changes in each manuscript level may be highlighted in a distinguishing color.
  • The genetic text can be transformed into the clear text without variants, using standard Gabler chapter-line numbers.
  • The genetic text and the clear text may be viewed together in parallel columns.
  • Unlike the other examples in the JJTM series -- and most other attempts to manage annotation on the screen -- these demonstrations do not rely on locally controlled mouseovers. Instead, these examples operate globally by changing the governing stylesheet for the entire file, using the HTML, CSS1, and JavaScript features of XHTML.

    1. CODING: These color codes indicate the manuscript levels in Gabler's left-hand pages:
      b gray | d tan | 1 blue | 2 lightblue | 3 green | 4 red | 1932 lightgreen.

    2. In addition, typographic shorthand cues (with level letters or number) indicate variants which survive even if a page is viewed in monochrome on a PDA or printed out in black-and-white:
      additions and deletions -- or ^additions^ and [deletions].
    3. PAGE-LINE NUMBERS: When genetic variants are given, the left-hand Gabler text uses page.line references specific to the 1986 Garland edition (here 1:124-26). Unfortunately, the combined variant texts sometimes require more than a single line and thus cannot be synchronized in parallel lines against the clear text. A vertical pipe (|) indicates the standard Gabler chapter.line divisions whenever the clear text is shown. Every fifth line is numbered.

  • DRAFT STATE: Although these examples have been prepared with reasonable care, they are in a draft state as demonstration pages and should not be used for any definitive scholarly purpose.

  • BROWSERS AND HTML: Although the Web markup language, HTML, should be a lingua franca available to all computers without regard to differences in platforms, operating systems, browsers, and monitors, these examples require contemporary browsers, such as Internet Explorer 5+ and Netscape 6+, which can change or select stylesheets.

  • FAREWELL, NETSCAPE 4.7x: This favorite browser in academic environments has limited capabilities and cannot be used in this portion of the JJTM. (It may actually crash.) Many Netscape 4.7x codes haven been "deprecated" by W3C, the international governing body for web standards, as obsolete. Thus Netscape 4.7x was not upgraded -- there was no Netscape 5. Netscape 6 is a new product which is not compatible with Netscape 4.7x.

  • OPERA: The Opera 5 browser will display the color and graphical codes but will not support the dynamic changes at this time.

  • BROWSERS AND MULTIPLE STYLE SHEETS: In this project, changes in style sheets -- which govern color, visibility, and other features -- are used to control the display of variants by highlighting them, concealing them, making them appear in normal or bold type, and even simulating their growth in Joyce's manuscripts through several layers.

  • Netscape 6+ supports alternate stylesheets, which may be selected at any time from the top VIEW menu (ALT-V) and the USE - STYLESHEETS (U) option. Internet Explorer 5+ requires JavaScript to change a stylesheet, requiring a mouse click in a hypertext menu or as a predefined alternative page action.

  • NETSCAPE 6 and its alternate stylesheets are integrated into the top VIEW menu. Although this feature was intended bring a feature of XML to HTML in handling alternate media (screen, print, PDA, aural, etc.), it works very well to visualize textual variant stages. Because the top menu is always available in the file, the controls can be used from any location in the text. In addition, many different stylesheets may be available for a single file without extensive programming skill or effort.

  • MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER 5+ uses JavaScript and similar programming to create, modify, or select a stylesheet. Different programming approaches are used if there are only two stylesheets compared to when there are three or more. If only two stylesheets are to be used, one can be loaded with the file as the default and the other can be activated as the designated alternative by a routine which is activated by clicking anywhere in the file. The program which activates the alternative stylesheet also restores the original stylesheet as a toggle. When three or more stylesheets are available, they must be selected from a hypertext menu, usually placed in the header and footer of the text file. But when the text is longer than about 25 lines or one screefful, the control menu and the text it governs may not fall on the same screen, requiring vertical scrolling to see the selected effect. To avoid this inconvenience, menus in duplicate, floating, or fixed frame format must be used.

  • WHENCE MOUSEOVERS? Where hypertext links exist (there are none within these texts proper) they will "light up" when the mouse pointer is over them. But these examples use global coding for the entire file, not local coding via mouseovers.

  • GETTING READY: Before starting, please use browser adjustments to obtain small fonts and large windows, which will be required when viewing parallel texts side by side. A monitor setting of 1024 x 7682 or higher will keep the text lines from breaking ("wrapping") when parallel texts are displayed.

  • A CODE SAMPLE: Here's the first five lines of the text -- with only one variant -- as they appear on the screen:
    0124.16|         Following the pointing of her finger he took up a leg of her soiled |
    0124.17| drawers from the bed. {4 [No.] No? } Then, a twisted grey garter looped
    0124.18| round a | stocking: rumpled, shiny sole.
    0124.19|        --No: that book.
    0124.20|     Other stocking. Her petticoat. |4.325|

    Here's the CSS and HTML coding for those lines:
    <span class="bo">0124.16|</span end bo>     Following the pointing of her finger he took up a leg of her soiled |<br>
    <span class="bo">0124.17|</span end bo> drawers from the bed.
    <span class="red" underline???>{4</span end 4 strike>
    <span class="red del">[No.]</span end 4 del>
    <span class="red">No? }</span end 4> Then, a twisted grey garter looped <br>
    <span class="bo">0124.18|</span end bo> round a | stocking: rumpled, shiny sole.<br>
    <span class="bo">0124.19|</span end bo>        --No: that book.<br>
    <span class="bo">0124.20|</span end bo>     Other stocking. Her petticoat. |4.325|<br>

  • OPINIONS? Please send comments or suggestions by email to Heyward Ehrlich, Department of English, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102 USA: ehrlich@andromeda.rutgers.edu. [3 August 2001, revised 7-15 Aug 2001, 16 June 2002]
  • ADDENDA:
    1. Added ID Tags to menus so that file view does not change stays in same place (or starts at the top of the current window) when clicking on menu items.
    2. Added duplicate mini-menus page by page in sul4_2.htm and sul4_3.htm. (Superceded by frames menu.)
    3. Duplicate contents: index.html and old pick_ie5_ns6.htm (now sul4_m.html, sul4_mm.htm, sul4_mmm, sul4_men.htm, and sul4_menu.html; rul4_doc3.htm and rul4_doc.htm.
    4. Done 7 Aug 2001: restored vertical side menu, tall and thin, in sul4_a2.htm.
    5. Done 7 Aug: corrected clear text to remove code crumbs in sul4_1z.htm and sul4_1c.htm .
    6. Done 7 Aug: corrected clear text line endings in sul4_1c.htm.
    7. Done 14 Aug 2001: Corrected line endings replicated in several additional files
    8. Done 14 Aug: Fixed frame top menu controls for scrollable text in its own pane
    9. Done 14 Aug: Shortened top menus
    10. Done 14 Aug: Updated sul4_men.htm main menu
    11. Done 16 June 2002: A large number of undocumented improvements for on the fly creation of Gabler levels
    12. To do: monitor detection/redirection script
    13. To do: small text corrections (coding glitches) in sul4_1c.htm and elsewhere .
    14. To do: printing capability of various files -- effect of margins, padding, etc.
    15. To do: timed change ("slide show") using layers B, D, 1, 2, 3, 4 to simulate the "growth" of the MSS.
    16. To do: explore production / automation / database issues in larger text samples.