By Eleanor Ty,
Wilfrid Laurier University
Last revised 1 August 2001
- Eleanor Ty, ed., Memoirs of Emma Courtney (Oxford:
World's Classics, 2000), pp. xl-xliii.
- Eleanor Ty, ed., The Victim of Prejudice
(Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2d ed. 1998), pp.
- See also Eleanor Ty's "Mary Hays Website" under Electronic
Individual Works (in order of original date of
- Cursory Remarks on an Enquiry into the Expediency and
Propriety of Public or Social Worship: Inscribed to Gilbert
Wakefield, as Eusebia (London: Thomas Knott, 1791).
- M. Hays and E. Hays, Letters and Essays, Moral and
Miscellaneous (London: T. Knott, 1793; facsimile, New York:
- Emma Courtney:
- Memoirs of Emma Courtney, 2 vols. (London: G. G. &
J. Robinson, 1796; New York: Hugh M. Griffith, 1802; facsimile,
New York: Garland, 1974).
- Memoirs of Emma Courtney (London: Pandora, 1987).
- Memoirs of Emma Courtney, ed. Eleanor Ty (Oxford:
World's Classics, 1996; reissued 2000). The first edited modern
edition of the novel with an introduction which sets the novel in
its social, historical, philosophical, and literary contexts.
- Memoirs of Emma Courtney, ed. Marilyn Brooks
(Peterborough: Broadview, 2000).
- Appeal to the Men of Great Britain in Behalf of Women,
anonymous. (London: J. Johnson, 1798; facsimile, New York:
- The Victim of Prejudice:
- The Victim of Prejudice, 2 vols. (London: J. Johnson,
1799; facsimile, Delmar, N.Y.: Scholars', 1990).
- The Victim of Prejudice, ed. Eleanor Ty (Peterborough,
Ontario: Broadview Press, 1994; 2d ed., 1998). The second
expanded edition contains a number of useful appendices: debates
about female chastity, education, extracts from Hays's essays,
and contemporary reviews.
- Female Biography; or, Memoirs of Illustrious and
Celebrated Women, of All Ages and Countries, 6 vols. (London:
Richard Phillips, 1803); 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Byrch &
- Harry Clinton: A Tale of Youth (London: J. Johnson for
T. Bensley, 1804).
- History of England, from the Earliest Records, to the
Peace of Amiens: In a Series of Letters to a Young Lady at
School, 3 vols.; vols. 1 & 2 by Charlotte Smith, vol. 3
by Hays. London: J. G. Barnard for Richard Phillips, 1806.
- Historical Dialogues for Young Persons, 3 vols.
(London: J. Johnson with J. Mawman, 1806-8).
- The Brothers; or, Consequences: A Story of What Happens
Every Day; Addressed to that Most Useful Part of the Community,
the Labouring Poor (Bristol: Prudent Man's Friend Society,
- Family Annals; or, The Sisters (London: Simpkin &
- Memoirs of Queens, Illustrious and Celebrated (London:
T. & J. Allman, 1821).
- "Mary Wollstonecraft," in The Annual Necrology for 1797-8;
Including Also, Various Articles of Neglected Biography
(London: Richard Phillips, 1800).
- "Life of Charlotte Smith," with Charlotte Smith, unsigned, in
Public Characters of 1800-1801 (London: Richard Phillips,
Periodical Publications -- Uncollected
- "A Sonnet" ["Ah let not Hope"], Universal Magazine 77
(Dec. 1785): 329.
- "Ode to Her Bullfinch," Universal Magazine 77 (Dec.
- "The Hermit: An Oriental Tale," The Universal Magazine of
Knowledge and Pleasure 78 (April 1786): 204-8; (May 1786):
- "Reply to J. T. on Helvetius," as M.H., The Monthly
Magazine 1 (June 1796): 385-87.
- "Remarks on A.B. Strictures on the Talents of Women," as A
Woman, The Monthly Magazine 2 (July 1796): 469-70.
- "The Talents of Women," The Monthly Magazine 2 (Nov.
- "Defence of Helvetius," as M.H., The Monthly Magazine
3 (Jan. 1797): 26-28.
- "Improvements Suggested in Female Education," as M.H., The
Monthly Magazine 3 (March 1797): 193-95.
- "Are Mental Talents Productive of Happiness?" as M.H., The
Monthly Magazine 3 (May 1797): 358-60.
- "On Novel Writing," as M.H., The Monthly Magazine 4
(Sept. 1797): 180-81.
- Obituary of Mary Wollstonecraft (anonymous), The Monthly
Magazine (Sept. 1797): 232-33.
- "Remarks on Dr. Reid on Insanity," The Monthly
Magazine 9 (1800): 523-24.
- The Love-Letters of Mary Hays (1779-1780), ed. Annie
F. Wedd (London: Methuen, 1925).
- Selected Letters of Mary Hays (1779-1843), ed. Marilyn
- Carl Pforzheimer Library in New York holds twenty-seven
letters written by Mary Hays to William Godwin between 1794 and
Biographical and Critical Studies
- The Feminist Companion to Literature in English: Women
Writers from the Middle Ages to the Present, ed. Virginia
Blain, Isobel Grundy, and Patricia Clements (New Haven: Yale
Univ. Press, 1990).
Books and Articles in Journals
- Marilyn Butler, Jane Austen and the War of Ideas
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975). Passing references to Emma
Courtney, but provides a very good historical background to
the debates of the 1790s.
- Margaret Anne Doody, "English Women Novelists and the French
Revolution," in La femme en Angleterre et dans les colonies
américaines aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Paris:
Actes du Colloque tenir à Paris, Université de
Lille III, 1975), pp. 176-98.
- Margaret Anne Doody, The True Story of the Novel (New
Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1996).
- Claire Grogan, "The Politics of Seduction in British Fiction
of the 1790s: The Female Reader and Julie, ou La nouvelle
Héloïse," Eighteenth-Century Fiction 11,
no. 4 (July 1999): 459-76. The writer identifies fourteen British
novels written at the turn of the century that incorporate
Rousseau's text into their narrative, focusing on Emma
Courtney and three others, published between 1769 and 1900,
which span the political spectrum and demonstrate the different
ends to which Rousseau's novel can be put.
- Terence Allan Hoagwood, Introduction to Victim of
Prejudice by Mary Hays (Delmar, N.Y: Scholars', 1990).
- Mary Jacobus, "Traces of an Accusing Spirit: Mary Hays and
the Vehicular State," in Psychoanalysis and the Scene of
Reading (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999), pp. 202-34. Reads
Emma Courtney as an Enlightenment case history; sees the
letter as a form of shared intimacy, like Freud's notion of
- Claudia L. Johnson, Jane Austen: Women, Politics, and the
Novel (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1988). The first
chapter gives an excellent overview of women writers at the turn
of the century -- their conservative and reformist tendencies,
with some references to Hays.
- Vivien Jones, "Placing Jemima: Women Writers of the 1790s and
the Eighteenth-Century Prostitution Narrative," Women's
Writing 4, no. 2 (1997): 201-20. Places Wollstonecraft's
treatment of Jemima together with stories of "fallen" women in
Victim of Prejudice and Inchbald's Nature and Art
within the context of eighteenth-century reform literature.
- Gary Kelly, English Fiction of the Romantic Period,
1789-1830 (London: Longman Literature in English Series,
1989). Survey of Romantic novels contains passing references to
- Gary Kelly, "Mary Hays," in Dictionary of Literary
Biography 158: British Reform Writers, 1789-1832, ed. Gary
Kelly and Edd Applegate (Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman, 1996),
pp. 124-30. A biographical critical essay focussing on Hays as a
- Gary Kelly, Women, Writing, and Revolution, 1790-1827
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993). Contains a chapter on Hays which
discusses the importance of the domestic woman in the cultural
revolution of the period based on her life, writing, and
contemporary reactions to her works.
- Peter Melville Logan, Nerves and Narratives: A Cultural
History of Hysteria in Nineteenth-Century British Prose
(Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1997). An intelligent
analysis of why Godwinian reason fails Emma Courtney and how late
Georgian social conditions create a psychology that is unique to
women and that results in a debilitating form of romantic love.
- Gina Luria, "Mary Hays: A Critical Biography"
(unpublished Ph.D. thesis, New York University, 1972). An early
study of Hays's life and works. Good discussion of the influences
of Locke, Hartley, Helvetius, Godwin, and others.
- Gina Luria, "Mary Hays's Letters & Manuscripts,"
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 3, no. 2
(Winter 1977): 524-30. How Hays's letters criticize Godwin's
rationalist philosophy and articulate the plight of women who
live outside the security of marriage.
- Anne K. Mellor, Romanticism and Gender (New York:
Routledge, 1993). Argues that Romanticism looks different when
the body of women's writing is incorporated. Mentions Hays in
passing as a figure caught between "masculine" and "feminine"
- Burton R. Pollin, "Mary Hays on Women's Rights in the
Monthly Magazine," Etudes Anglaises 24, no. 3 (1971):
271-82. Examines and summarizes Hays's contribution to debates
about women's character, education, and her energetic defence of
- Tillotama Rajan, "Autonarration and Genotext in Mary Hays'
Memoirs of Emma Courtney," Studies in Romanticism
32, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 149-76. Coins the term "autonarration"
for Emma's narrative of desire and passion which has its genesis
in the life of a real individual. Traces what Kristeva calls the
"genotext" of the novel, the process that articulates ephemeral,
- Katharine M. Rogers, "The Contribution of Mary Hays,"
Prose Studies 10, no. 2 (Sept. 1987): 131-42. Analyzes
Hays's style in comparison to Wollstonecraft's polemical essays.
- Sandra Sherman, "The Feminization of 'Reason' in Hays's
The Victim of Prejudice," The Centennial Review 41,
no. 1 (Winter 1997): 143-72. Discusses the difficulties that
confronted women as they tried to use "reason": reason and
independence subsist as a discourse, but are warped by persistent
- Sandra Sherman, "The Law, Confinement, and Disruptive Excess
in Hays' The Victim of Prejudice," 1650-1850: Ideas,
Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era 5 (1998).
Points out that the novel illustrates feminist jurisprudence
through its visceral, enraged depiction of women's legal and
- Jane Spencer, The Rise of the Woman Novelist: From Aphra
Behn to Jane Austen (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986). Sweeping
survey of many female novelists; devotes about four pages to
- Dale Spender, Mothers of the Novel: 100 Good Women Writers
before Jane Austen (New York: Pandora, 1986). Spunky, lively,
- Janet Todd, ed., A Dictionary of British and American
Women Writers 1660-1800 (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman &
- Janet Todd, The Sign of Angellica: Women, Writing and
Fiction, 1660-1800 (London: Virago, 1989). Chapter compares
Wollstonecraft's Mary, A Fiction with Emma Courtney
as books where there is no exit from the political impasse of
sensibility; women will cling to the fantasy of romantic love
simply because the world is indeed a prison and a magic circle.
- J. M. S. Tompkins, The Popular Novel in England
1770-1800 (London: Constable, 1932). An early, classic study.
- Eleanor Ty, "Female Philosophy Refunctioned: Elizabeth
Hamilton's Parodic Novel," Ariel: A Review of International
English Literature 22, no. 4 (Oct. 1991): 111-29. Argues that
Hamilton's parody of Hays betrays ambivalence -- admiration mixed
- Eleanor Ty, "The Imprisoned Female Body in Mary Hays' The
Victim of Prejudice," in Women, Revolution and the Novels
of the 1790s, ed. Linda Lang-Peralta (East Lansing: Michigan
State Univ. Press, 1999), pp. 133-54. Uses Foucault's notions of
discipline, punishment, and surveillance to look at the
consequences on the female body.
- Eleanor Ty, "Mary Hays," in Dictionary of Literary
Biography 142: Eighteenth-Century British Literary
Biographers, ed. S. Serafin (Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman,
1994), pp. 152-60. A biographical critical essay focusing on
Hays's work as compiler of biographies of women.
- Eleanor Ty, Unsex'd Revolutionaries: Five Women Novelists
of the 1790s (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1993). Book
takes a feminist psycholinguistic approach to ten women's novels.
Contains two chapters on Hays: one looks at speech and repression
in Emma Courtney, while the other discusses the way the
mother-daughter plot illustrates the failure of the Burkean
paradigm in The Victim of Prejudice.
- Nicola J. Watson, Revolution and the Form of the British
Novel, 1790-1825: Intercepted Letters, Interrupted Seductions
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994). Looks at the centrality of
Rousseau's Nouvelle Héloïse on the British
novel, in particular, on the power of the letter. Devotes about
ten pages to Hays's Emma Courtney and Victim of
- Eleanor Ty, "Mary Hays Website," http://www.wlu.ca/~wwweng/ety/.
Contains a bibliography of primary and secondary sources, a
biographical critical essay, links to other radicals of the
period, and excerpts from Hays's letters.
Please send comments and corrections to firstname.lastname@example.org.