Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733)
Last revised 28 August 2004
- F. B. Kaye, "The Writings of Bernard Mandeville: A
Bibliographical Survey," Journal of English and Germanic
Philology 20 (1921): 419-67.
- The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick
Benefits, ed. F. B. Kaye, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1924; repr. Indianapolis: The Liberty Fund, 1988). Contains a
full list and description of editions for all of Mandeville's
works. Also included is an annotated list of references to
Mandeville's work from 1716 to 1923.
- M. B. Wood, "Bernard Mandeville: Sources, 1924-1979,"
Bulletin of Bibliography 40, no. 2 (June 1983): 103-107.
An extensive, but not entirely complete, list of scholarly
writing on Mandeville; picks up where Kaye left off.
- Bernardi a Mandeville, de Medicina Oratio Scholastica
(Rotterdam: Regneri Leers, 1685). An oration in which BM declares
his intent to study medicine at Leyden.
- Disputatio Philosophica de Brutorum Operationibus
(Leyden: Abraham Elzevier, 1689). A dissertation delivered at
Leyden in 1689, in which Mandeville defended the Cartesian
position that animals are unfeeling automata.
- Disputatio Medica Inauguralis de Chylosi Vitiata
(Leyden: Abraham Elzevier, 1691). Mandeville's medical
dissertation in which he argued that digestion involved
fermentation, rather than warmth.
- "In authorem de usu interno cantharidum scribentum," in
Joannem Groenvelt, M.D., Tutus Cantharidum in Medicina Usus
Internus (2nd ed., London, 1703; 3rd edition, London, 1706).
Translated by John Marten as "Upon the Author, Treating of the
Internal Use of Cantahrides," in John Greenfield, A
Treatise of the Safe, Internal Use of Cantharides in the Practice
of Physick (London, 1706).
- The Pamphleteers: A Satyr (London, 1703). A defence of
William III against charges of financial corruption.
- Some Fables after the Easie and Familiar Method of
Monsieur de la Fontaine (London: Richard Wellington, 1703).
- Aesop Dress'd; or A Collection of Fables Writ in Familiar
Verse. By B. Mandeville M.D. (London: Printed for Richard
Wellington, 1704; London, Sold at Lock's Head, 1704); 2nd ed.
[reset] (London: Sold at Lock's Head, 1727). Translations, with
additions, of a selection of F's fables, with two, "The Carp" and
"The Nightingale and the Owl," by BM. Reprint: intro. by J. Shea,
Augustan Reprint Society Publication no. 120 (Los Angeles: Clark
Memorial Library, 1966).
- Typhon: or The Wars Between the Gods and Giants; A
Burlesque Poem in Imitation of the Comical Mons. Scarron
(London: Printed for J. Pero & S. Illidge, and sold by J.
Nutt, 1704). Poem in imitation of Paul Scarron's Typhon.
- The Grumbling Hive: or, Knaves Turn'd Honest (London:
Printed for Sam. Ballard, at the Blue-Ball, in Little Britain:
And Sold by A. Baldwin, in Warwick-Lane, 1705). Pirated edition
"Printed in the year 1705" [quarto printed in double columns];
reprint [version and format uncertain] Boston, Mass., 1811. Verse
fable in which a society of bees undergoes a reformation of
manners, and loose their hive in the process. See below for
details on the modern edition of The Fable of the Bees.
- A Sermon Preach'd at Colchester, to the Dutch
Congregation, by the Reverend C. Schrevelius, trans. by B.M.,
M.D. (London, 1708).
- The Virgin Unmask'd; or Female Dialogues betwixt an
Elderly Maiden Lady and her Niece on Several Diverting Discourses
on Love, Marriage, Memoirs and Morals &c of the Times
(London: J. Morphew and J. Woodward, 1709). Reissued as The
Mysteries of Virginity (London: J. Morphew, 1714); 2nd ed. by
Bernard Mandeville (London: G. Strahan, W. Meers, J. Stagg,
1724), reissued (London: A. Bettesworth, C. Hitch, 1731). Later
editions, 1742, 1757. Reprint of 1st edition, intro. Stephen H.
Good (Delmar, NY, 1975).
- The Female Tatler, by "A Society of Ladies" (London:
A. Baldwin, 1709-10). Mandeville contributed thirty-two numbers
as "Lucinda" and "Artesia" between no. 52 (4 November 1709) and
no. 111 (31 March 1710). Modern edition: By a Society of
Ladies: Bernard Mandeville's Essays in the "Female Tatler"
Edited, with an introduction and notes, M. M. Goldsmith (Bristol:
Thoemmes Press, 1999). A fully annotated edition of Mandeville's
essays in the Female Tatler.
- A Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions,
Vulgarly Call'd the Hypo in Men and Vapours in Women, by B.
de Mandeville, M.D. (London: Printed for the author D. Leach, W.
Taylor, John Woodward, 1711); reissued, 1715; 3rd ed. [designated
as the second edition on the title page] published as A
Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysteric Diseases (London:
Printed for J. Tonson in the Strand, 1730). Reprint of 2nd ed.,
intro. Stephen H. Good (Delmar, NY, 1976).
- Wishes to a Godson, with Other Miscellany Poems. By
B.M. (London: Printed for J. Baker, 1712). Reprint: Exeter:
The Rota, 1975.
- The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick
Benefits (London: J. Roberts, 1714), two editions. 2nd
editon, Edmund Parker, 1723; 3rd. edition, J. Tonson, 1724; 4th
edition, 1725; 5th edition 1728; 6th edition, 1729; "6th
edition," 1732. Translations: French, German. See below (under
Part II) for modern scholarly editions.
- The Mischiefs that Ought Justly to be Apprehended from a
Whig-Government (London: J. Roberts, 1714). Reprint intro. by
H. T. Dickinson, Augustan Reprint Society Publication no. 174
(Los Angeles: Clark Memorial Library, 1975).
- Free Thoughts on Religion, the Church and National
Happiness, by B.M. (London T. Jauncy, J. Roberts, 1720);
reissued, T. Warner, 1721; "by the author of the Fable of the
Bees" (J. Brotherton, 1723); 2nd ed., enlarged, by B.M.,
1729. Reprint of 2nd ed. (Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, 1969).
Translations into French, Dutch, and German.
- Free Thoughts on Religion, the Church, and National
Happiness, ed. and intro. Irwin Primer (New Brunswick and
London: Transaction Books, 2001). In this important new edition,
Irwin Primer presents Free Thoughts with a full scholarly
- A Modest Defence of Publick Stews: or, an Essay Upon
Whoring as it is now Practis'd in these Kingdoms, "Written by
a Layman" (London: A. Moore, 1724). Reprint of 1st edition intro.
by Richard I.Cook, Augustan Reprint Society Publication no. 162
(Los Angeles: Clark Memorial Library, 1973). Translation into
French, Venus la Populaire.
- An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions at
Tyburn: and a Proposal for some Regulations concerning Felons in
Prison, and the Good Effects to be Expected from Them by B.
Mandeville, M.D. (London, J. Roberts, 1725). Reprint intro. by
Malvin R. Zirker, Jr., Augustan Reprint Society Publication no.
105 (Los Angeles: Clark Memorial Library, 1964).
- The Fable of the Bees, Part II, "By the Author of the
First" (London: J. Roberts, 1729; 1730; 2nd edition, 1733.
Later editions of both volumes, 1734, 1755 (2), 1772, 1795 (2),
1806 (reissue of 1795 edition). Modern editions: The Fable of
the Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits ed. F. B. Kaye,
2 vols. (Oxford, 1924) is the standard scholarly edition, with
notes, an excellent introductory essay, and a bibliography of
references (favourable and otherwise) to the Fable to
1924. A facsimile of Kaye's edition was reissued by the Liberty
Fund (Indianapolis, 1988). Other editions, none of which
reproduces the two volumes in their entirety, include those
edited by Irwin Primer (New York: Capricorn, 1962), Philip Harth
(Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970), and E. J. Hundert
(Indianapolis-Cambridge: Hackett, 1997).
- An Enquiry into the Origin of Honour, and the Usefulness
of Christianity in War, by "the Author of the Fable of the
Bees" (London: J. Brotherton, 1732). Reprint: intro. M.M.
Goldsmith (London: Frank Cass, 1971).
- A Letter to Dion, Occasion'd by his Book call'd Alciphron,
or the Minute Philosopher, by the author of "the Fable of
the Bees" (London: J. Roberts, 1732). Reprint: intro. Jacob
Viner, Augustan Reprint Society Publication no. 41 (Los Angeles:
Clark Memorial Library, 1953).
Very little is known about Mandeville's life, outside of what can
be gleaned from the writings. However, much is made of what there
is by Kaye (1924), and by Irwin Primer, "Bernard Mandeville,"
Dictionary of Literary Biography 101 (1991): 220-39. See
also M. M. Goldsmith's entry in the new Oxford Dictionary of
- F. Gregoire, Bernard de Mandeville et la "Fable des
abeilles" (Nancy: Georges Thomas, 1947).
- F. Arata, "Le Api" di B. de Mandeville (Torino, 1953).
- Maria Goretti, Il Paradosso Mandeville: Saggio sulla
"Favola delle Api" col testo inglese a fronte e bibliographia
(Firenze: F. LeMonnier, 1958).
- Richard I. Cook, Bernard Mandeville, Twayne's English
Author Series (New York: Twayne, 1974). A good introductory
summary of Mandeville's major works.
- Hector H. Monro, The Ambivalence of Bernard Mandeville
(Oxford, 1975). Pursues the thesis that there are "two
Mandevilles," i.e., the sincere Christian, and the scoffing
- Irwin Primer, ed., Mandeville Studies: New Explorations in
the Art and Thought of Dr. Bernard Mandeville (The Hague:
Martinus Nijhoff, 1975). Contains the following articles:
- Gordon S. Vichert, "Bernard Mandeville's The Virgin
- G. S. Rousseau, "Mandeville and Europe: Medicine and
- Richard I. Cook, "'The Great Leviathan of Lechery':
Mandeville's Modest Defence of Publick Stews (1724),"
- Malcolm R. Jack, "Religion and Ethics in Mandeville," 34-42.
- E. D. James, "Faith, Sincerity and Morality: Mandeville and
- W. A. Speck, "Mandeville and the Eutopia Seated in the
- H. T. Dickinson, "The Politics of Bernard Mandeville," 80-97.
- J. A. W. Gunn, "Mandeville and Wither: Individualism and the
Workings of Providence," 98-118.
- John Robert Moore, "Mandeville and Defoe," 119-25.
- Irwin Primer, "Mandeville and Shaftesbury: Some Facts and
- A. Owen Aldridge, "Mandeville and Voltaire," 142-56.
- Robert Adolph, "'What Pierces or Strikes': Prose Style in the
Fable of the Bees," 157-67.
- Robert H. Hopkins, "The Cant of Social Compromise: Some
Observations on Mandeville's Satire," 168-92.
- Philip Pinkus, "Mandeville's Paradox," 193-211.
- Thomas A. Horne, The Social Thought of Bernard Mandeville:
Virtue and Commerce in Early Eighteenth-Century England (New
York-London: Macmillan, 1978). Integrates Mandeville's work with
J. G. A. Pocock's synthesis of Augustan thought [Virtue,
Commerce and History: Essays on Political Thought and History,
Chiefly in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
- Paulette Carrive, Bernard Mandeville: Passions, vices,
vertus (Paris: Vrin, 1980).
- -----, La Philosophie des passions chez Bernard
Mandeville, 2 vols. (Paris: Didier Erudition, 1983).
- E. M. Scribano, Natura umana e societa competitiva: studio
su Mandeville (Milan: Feltrinelli, 1980).
- M[aurice] M[arks] Goldsmith, Private Vices, Public
Benefits: Bernard Mandeville's Social and Political Thought
(Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985; 2nd ed., revised,
Christchurch, NZ: Cybereditions, 2001). Argues that Mandeville
was first stung into political writing by the appearance of
The Tatler, and provides a very thorough and balanced
discussion of the results.
- Louis Schneider, Paradox and Society: The Work of Bernard
Mandeville (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1987).
- Edward J. Hundert, The Enlightenment's "Fable": Bernard
Mandeville and the Discovery of Society (Cambridge: Cambridge
Univ. Press, 1994). Probes Mandeville's status as a central
figure in the Enlightenment, and traces his influence on its
- Dorit Grugel-Pannier, Luxus: Eine begriffs- und
ideengeschichtliche Untersuchung unter besondere Berucksichtigung
von Bernard Mandeville (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1996).
- J. Martin Stafford, ed., Private Vices, Publick Benefits?:
The Contemporary Reception of Bernard Mandeville (Solihull:
Ismeron, 1997). An anthology which reproduces a number of the
works that were published after the appearance of the 1723
edition of the Fable of the Bees, with an introductory
essay. Contains the following items:
- Bernard Mandeville, "A Vindication of the Fable,"
- Robert Burrow, A Sermon Preached before the Lord Mayor of
London on 28th September, 1723, 21-45.
- William Law, Remarks upon a Late Book Entituled the "Fable
of the Bees," 45-94.
- Richard Fiddes, Preface to A General Treatise of
- John Dennis, Vice and Luxury Publick Mischiefs: or,
Remarks on a Book intituled, the "Fable of the Bees."
- Article from The Weekly Journal; or, Saturday's Post
(8 August 1724).
- George Bluet, An Enquiry whether a General Practice of
Virtue Tends to the Wealth or Poverty, Benefit or Disadvantage of
- Francis Hutcheson, three letters to the Dublin Weekly
- Malcolm Jack, a note on Hutcheson and Mandeville.
- John Thorold, A Short Examination of the Notions Advanc'd
in . . . the "Fable of the Bees."
- The True Meaning of the "Fable of the Bees."
- Three letters to the London Journal (June 1729).
- Article from Read's Weekly Journal; or, British
Gazetteer (27 March 1731).
- George Berkeley, Alciphron, Dialogue II.
- Bernard Mandeville, A Letter to Dion.
- David Hume, "Of Benevolence and Self-Love"; "Of Luxury."
- Adam Smith, Of Licentious Systems.
- Mandeville and Augustan Ideas: New Essays, edited by
Charles W. A. Prior, English Literary Studies Monograph Series,
No. 83, general editor, Robert Schuler (Victoria, BC: English
Literary Studies, 2000). Contains the following essays:
- Charles W. A. Prior, Introduction, 9-15.
- J. A. W. Gunn, "'State Hypochondriacks'" Dispraised:
Mandeville versus the Active Citizen," 16-34.
- Gordon J. Schochet, "Mandeville's Free Thoughts and
the Eighteenth-Century Debates on 'Toleration' and the English
- Charles W. A. Prior, "'The Leave Complaints': Mandeville,
Anti-Catholicism, and English Orthodoxy," 51-70.
- M. M. Goldsmith, "Mandeville's Pernicious System," 71-84.
- Malcolm Jack, "Mandeville, Johnson, Morality and Bees,"
- Thomas Stumpf, "Mandeville, Asceticism, and the Spare Diet of
the Golden Age," 97-116.
- Irwin Primer, "Mandeville on War," 117-40.
- M. M. Goldsmith, Private Vices, Public Benefits: Bernard
Mandeville's Social and Political Thought, revised edition
(Christchurch, NZ: Cybereditions, 2001). A revised edition of the
classic 1985 study published by Cambridge and now out of print.
Goldsmith notes new scholarship in the field to 2000, and offers
a new introduction. Available in print, or as an ebook from www.cybereditions.com.
- F. B. Kaye, "The Mandeville Canon: A Supplement," Notes
& Queries 3 (1924): 317-21.
- -----, "Mandeville on the Origin of Language," Modern
Language Notes 39 (1924): 136-42. Considers the important
discussion of the origin and development of language that appears
in the second volume of the Fable.
- Louis I. Bredvold, "F. B. Kaye's The Fable of the
Bees, by Bernard Mandeville," Journal of English and
Germanic Philology 24 (1925).
- A. K. Rogers, "The Ethics of Mandeville," International
Journal of Ethics 36 (1925): 1-17. Mandeville as a moral
- S. P. Lamprecht, "The Fable of the Bees," Journal of
Philosophy 23 (1926): 561-79.
- J. H. Lloyd, "Dr. Bernard de Mandeville and His Fable of
the Bees," Annals of Medical History 8 (1926): 265-69.
- J. Burton, "Mandeville: A Post-Augustan Pessimist,"
Dalhousie Review 8 (1928): 189-96. A summary of
Mandeville's works with some biographical discussion.
- G. H. Ward, "An Unnoted Poem by Mandeville," Review of
English Studies 7 (1931): 73-76. Discusses a poem by
Mandeville included with Groeneveldt's treatise noted above.
- Bonamy Dobrée, "Mandeville's Fable of the
Bees," in Variety of Ways: Discussions of Six Authors
(Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1932): 100-18. A favourable
meditation on Mandeville's career and place in Augustan letters.
- R. S. Crane, "Bernard de Mandeville," Philological
Quarterly 13 (1934): 122-23.
- B. Lunn, "The Fable of the Bees, by Bernard Mandeville,"
English Review 60 (1935): 623.
- P. B. Anderson, "Bernard Mandeville," TLS (28 November
- -----, "Splendor out of Scandal: The Lucinda-Artesia Papers
in The Female Tatler," Philological Quarterly 15
(1936): 286-300. This article made the initial connection between
BM and certain numbers of the Female Tatler.
- -----, "Innocence and Artifice; or, Mrs. Centlivre and the
Female Tatler," Philological Quarterly 16 (1937):
- -----, "Cato's Obscure Counterpart in The British Journal,
1722-25," Studies in Philology 34 (1937): 412-38.
- -----, "Bernard Mandeville on Gin," PMLA 54 (1939):
- J. H. and S. J. Fichter, "Root of Economic Liberalism:
Bernard Mandeville, 1670-1733," in Roots of Change (New
- F. From, "Mandeville's Paradox," Theoria 10 (1944):
- I. O. Wade, Studies on Voltaire: With Some Unpublished
Papers of Madame du Chatelet (Princeton: Princeton Univ.
Press, 1947). Discusses a partial translation (never published)
of Mandeville's Fable by one of Voltaire's circle.
- J. C. Maxwell, "Ethics and Politics in Mandeville,"
Philosophy 26 (1951): 242-52.
- A. K. Skarsten, "Nature in Mandeville," Journal of English
and Germanic Philology 53 (1954): 562-68. A discussion of
Mandeville's treatment of human nature.
- H. Drennon, "Bernard Mandeville: High Priest of Paradox,"
Mississippi Quarterly 8 (1955).
- P. J. Alpers, "Pope's To Bathurst and the Mandevillian
State," ELH 25 (1958): 23-42.
- Earl R. Miner, "Dr. Johnson, Mandeville, and Publick
Benefits," Huntington Library Quarterly 21 (1958): 159-66.
Argues against Johnson's economic positions having been derived
- J. D. Young, "Mandeville: A Popularizer of Hobbes," Modern
Language Notes 74 (1959): 10-13. Argues that while BM did a
great deal for H's legacy, his inaccurate treatment did its share
- H. L. Jones, "Holberg on Mandeville's Fable of the
Bees," College Language Association Journal 4 (1960):
116-25. Holberg (1684-1754) was a professor at Copenhagen who
attacked Mandeville's work.
- L. W. Smith, "Fielding and Mandeville: The 'War Against
Virtue,'" Criticism 3 (Winter 1961): 7-15. A good
comparison of M and F on human nature and society.
- J. A. Preu, "Private Vices-Public Benefits," English
Journal 52 (1963): 653-58, 692. A very basic summary.
- N. Rosenberg, "Mandeville and Laissez-Faire,"
Journal of the History of Ideas 24 (1963): 183-96.
- T. R. Edwards, "Mandeville's Moral Prose," ELH 31
(1964): 195-212. Takes the interesting position that Mandeville
was actually troubled by the type of society whose workings he so
- G. S. Vichert, "Bernard Mandeville and A Dissertation Upon
Drunkenness," Notes & Queries 11 (1964): 288-92.
- A. F. Chalk, "Mandeville's Fable of the Bees: A
Reappraisal," Southern Economic Journal 33 (1966): 1-16.
BM's economic thought as a middle position between mercantilism
- F. A. Hayek, "Dr. Bernard Mandeville: Lecture on a Master
Mind," Proceedings of the British Academy 52 (1966):
125-41. The case for M's lasting influence as the author of a
truly evolutionary account of society, pioneer of functionalism.
- M. J. Scott-Taggart, "Mandeville: Cynic or Fool?"
Philosophical Quarterly 16 (1966): 221-32. Suggests that M
found the natural development of morality disturbing, and that he
preferred virtue to vice.
- G. S. Vichert, "Some Recent Mandeville Attributions,"
Philological Quarterly 45 (1966): 459-63.
- M. Goretti, "Vico et l'hétérogenèse des
fins (Vico et Mandeville)," Etudes Philosophiques 3-4
- G. Hind, "Mandeville's Fable of the Bees as Menippean
Satire," Genre 1 (1968): 307-15.
- Philip Harth, "The Satiric Purpose of the Fable of the
Bees," Eighteenth Century Studies 2 (1969): 321-40.
BM's work as satire on Christians whose professions of virtue
were futile, given a universally corrupt human nature.
- Irwin Primer, "A Bibliographic Note on Bernard Mandeville's
Free Thoughts," Notes & Queries 16 (1969):
- E. J. Chaisson, "Bernard Mandeville: A Reappraisal,"
Philological Quarterly 49 (1970): 489-519. M as genuine
- L. Schneider, "Mandeville and a Forerunner of Modern
Sociology," Journal of the History of the Behavioural
Sciences 6 (1970): 219-30.
- G. N. Clark, "Bernard Mandeville, M.D., and
Eighteenth-Century Medical Ethics," Bulletin of the History of
Medicine 45 (1971): 430-43.
- J. Noxon, "Dr. Bernard Mandeville: 'A Thinking Man,'" in
The Varied Pattern: Studies in the 18th Century, ed. P.
Hughes & D. Williams (Toronto: Hakkert, 1971), 233-52. BM's
attack on hypocrisy should be taken as an appeal for frank
discussion about human nature.
- George S. Rousseau, "Bernard Mandeville and the First Earl of
Macclesfield," Notes & Queries 18 (1971): 335.
Macclesfield seems to have been BM's patron, and is the recipient
of one of two letters in BM's hand.
- L. Colletti, "Mandeville, Rousseau and Smith," in From
Rousseau to Lenin: Studies in Ideology and Society, trans. J.
Merrington & J. White (London: New Left Books, 1972),
- J. Colman, "Bernard Mandeville and the Reality of Virtue,"
Journal of Philosophy 47 (1972): 125-39. BM agreed that
virtue was genuine, but he disputed that it was a natural quality
- P. Retat, "De Mandeville à Montesquieu: Honneur, luxe
et dépense noble dans l'Esprit des lois," Studi
Francesi 50 (1973): 238-49.
- L. Dumont, "The Emancipation of Economics from Morality:
Mandeville's Fable of the Bees," Social Science
Information 14 (1975): 35-52.
- H. Landreth, "The Economic Thought of Bernard Mandeville,"
History of Political Economy 7 (1975): 193-208.
- H. T. Dickinson, "Bernard Mandeville: An Independent Whig,"
Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 151-55
(1976): 559-70. Fits M's political identity within the broader
context of Augustan party ideologies.
- B. Fabian, "The Reception of Bernard Mandeville in
Eighteenth-Century Germany," Transactions of the Fourth
International Congress on the Enlightenment, ed. T. Besterman
(Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1976), 693-722.
- M. M. Goldsmith, "Public Virtue and Private Vices: Bernard
Mandeville and English Political Ideologies of the Early
Eighteenth Century," Eighteenth-Century Studies 9 (1976):
477-510. BM's political ideas were shaped in response to Steele's
- -----, "Two More Works by Bernard Mandeville?" Notes &
Queries 23 (August 1976): 346.
- M. Jack, "Progress and Corruption in the Eighteenth Century:
Mandeville's Private Vices, Public Benefits," Journal of the
History of Ideas 37 (1976): 369-76.
- R. Popkin, "Isaac de Pinto's Criticism of Mandeville and Hume
on Luxury," Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century
154 (1976): 1705-14.
- S. J. Rogal, "The Selling of Sex: Mandeville's Modest
Defence of Publick Stews," in Studies in Eighteenth
Century Culture, Vol. 5, ed. R. C. Rosbottom (Madison: Univ.
of Wisconsin Press, 1976).
- E. Ross, "Mandeville, Melon and Voltaire: The Origins of the
Luxury Controversy in France," Studies in Voltaire and the
Eighteenth Century 155 (1976): 1897-1912.
- R. W. Uphaus, "Satire, Verification and The Fable of the
Bees," Papers on Language and Literature 12 (1976):
- M. M. Goldsmith, "Bernard Mandeville and the Spirit of
Capitalism," Journal of British Studies 17 (Fall 1977):
- M. Jack, "Hutcheson and Mandeville," Notes &
Queries 24 (1977): 221-22.
- -----, "One State of Nature: Mandeville and Rousseau,"
Journal of the History of Ideas 39 (1978): 119-24.
- R. Schreyer, "Condillac, Mandeville, and the Origin of
Language," Historiographica Linguistica: International Journal
for the History of Linguistics 5 (1978): 15-43.
- W. A. Speck, "Bernard Mandeville and the Middlesex Grand
Jury," Eighteenth Century Studies 11 (1978): 362-74.
Suggests possible reasons why the Fable drew the ire of
the jury, which was mostly Tory in composition.
- P. Carrive, "Une Lettre d'Adam Smith: Tableau de la culture
en Europe en 1755, Mandeville et Rousseau," Etudes
Philosophiques 35 (1980): 203-14.
- T. A. Horne, "Politics in a Corrupt Society: William Arnall's
Defence of Robert Walpole," Journal of the History of
Ideas 41 (1980): 601-14. Arnall's use of M's positions to
supply a defence of Walpole's ministry
- E. M. Scribano, "La Presenza di Bayle nell'opera di Bernard
de Mandeville," Giornale Critico della Filosophia Italiana
60 (1981): 186-220.
- D. Castiglione, "Mandeville Moralised," Annali della
Fondazione Luigi Einaudi 17 (1983): 239-90.
- J. A. W. Gunn, "Mandeville: Poverty, Luxury and the Whig
Theory of Government," in Beyond Liberty and Property: The
Process of Self-Recognition in Eighteenth-Century Political
Thought (Kingston-Montreal: McGill/Queen's Univ. Press,
1983), 96-109. BM as an important contributor to Whig political
- A. Varney, "Mandeville as a Defoe Source," Notes &
Queries 30 (1983): 26-29.
- C. Wong, "Mandeville, Bayle, and Epicurus," Notes &
Queries 31 (1984): 394.
- W. J. Farrell, "The Role of Mandeville's Bee Analogy in 'The
Grumbling Hive,'" Studies in English Literature 25 (1985):
511-29. Argues that BM wanted to argue that the hive has nothing
in common with the human city.
- S. Rashid, "Mandeville's Fable: Laissez-faire or
Libertinism?" Eighteenth Century Studies 18 (1985):
313-30. Argues against Kaye that BM's claims to being a precursor
of laissez-faire is weak, since his discussions of economics were
- J. Yates, "Bernard Mandeville and the Female Tatler,"
Notes & Queries 32 (1985): 199-200.
- D. Castiglione, "Considering Things Minutely: Reflections on
Mandeville and the Eighteenth Century Science of Man," History
of Political Thought 7 (1986): 463-88.
- S. Daniel, "Myth and Rationality in Mandeville," Journal
of the History of Ideas 47 (1986): 595-609. BM's interest in
myths and fables serves as an "interpretative key" that helps to
solve some of the ambiguities of his work.
- M. M. Goldsmith, "'The Treacherous Arts of Mankind': Bernard
Mandeville and Female Virtue," History of Political
Thought 3 (1986): 93-114. Discusses M's use of female
characters to debunk civic humanism's tendency to associate
virtue with men alone.
- E. J. Hundert, "Bernard Mandeville and the Rhetoric of Social
Science," Journal of the History of the Behavioural
Sciences 22 (1986): 311-20.
- D. Den-Uyl, "Passion, State, and Progress: Spinoza and
Mandeville on the Nature of Human Association," Journal of the
History of Philosophy 25 (1987): 369-95.
- M. M. Goldsmith, "Liberty, Luxury and the Pursuit of
Happiness," in The Languages of Political Theory in
Early-Modern Europe, ed. A. Pagden (Cambridge: Cambridge
Univ. Press, 1987): 225-51. By arguing for the positive virtues
of luxury, BM lent force to the notion that happiness was more
important than virtue.
- -----, "Regulating Anew the Moral and Political Sentiments of
Mankind: Bernard Mandeville and the Scottish Enlightenment,"
Journal of the History of Ideas 49 (1988): 587-606.
Examines the impact of BM's work on the major figures of the
- E. J. Hundert, "The Thread of Language and the Web of
Dominion: Mandeville to Rousseau and Back," Eighteenth Century
Studies 21 (1988): 169-91. Examines how the Fable's
discussion of language fit into the broader debate about language
during the Enlightenment.
- F. McKee, "Early Criticism of 'The Grumbling Hive,'" Notes
& Queries 35 (1988): 176-7.
- -----, "Two Brief Notes on Bernard Mandeville," Notes
& Queries 36 (1989): 52-53.
- M. Jack, "Bernard Mandeville: The Progress of Public
Benefits," in Corruption and Progress: the Eighteenth-Century
Debate (New York: AMS Press, 1989), 19-62. Provides a very
good discussion of BM's account of social progress founded upon a
theory of corrupt human nature.
- R. Nieli, "Commercial Society and Christian Virtue: The
Mandeville-Law Dispute," The Review of Politics 51 (1989):
- L. Dickey, "Pride, Hypocrisy, and Civility in Mandeville's
Social and Historical Theory," Critical Review 4 (1990):
- E. and F. S. Michael, "Hutcheson's Account of Beauty as a
Response to Mandeville," History of European Ideas 12
- J. J. Peereboom, "A Common Language: Mandeville as a
Contemporary of Pope," in Centennial Hauntings: Pope, Byron,
and Eliot in the Year 88, ed. C. Barfoot and T. D'haen
(Atlanta: Rodopi, 1990), 97-110.
- A. M. Hjort, "Mandeville's Ambivalent Modernity," Modern
Language Notes 106 (1991): 951-66.
- D. Castiglione, "Excess, Frugality and the Spirit of
Capitalism: Readings of Mandeville on Commercial Society," in
Culture in History: Production, Consumption and Values in
Historical Perspective, ed. J. Melling and J. Barry (Exeter:
Univ. of Exeter Press, 1992): 155-179.
- N. Hudson, "Language, Abstract Thought and Political Power in
Vico, Mandeville and Rousseau," Studies on Voltaire and the
Eighteenth Century 303 (1992): 256-59.
- -----, "Dialogue and the Origins of Language: Linguistic and
Social Evolution in Mandeville, Condillac, and Rousseau," in
Compendious Conversations: The Method of Dialogue in the Early
Enlightenment, ed. Kevin L. Cope (Frankfurt: Peter Lang,
- M. M. Goldsmith, "Bernard Mandeville and the Virtues of the
Dutch," Dutch Crossing 48 (1992): 20-38.
- R. Dekker, "'Private Vices, Public Virtues' Revisited: The
Dutch Background of Bernard Mandeville," trans. G.T. Moran,
History of European Ideas 14 (1992): 481-83. Describes
Mandeville's early career as a satirist in an effort to draw a
firmer connection between his personal life and thought.
- Jonathan Brody Kramnick, "'Unwilling to be Short, or Plain,
in Any Thing Concerning Gain': Bernard Mandeville and the
Dialectic on Charity," The Eighteenth Century: Theory &
Interpretation 33 (1992): 148-75.
- Francis McKee, "Bernard Mandeville's Anatomy of the Emblem,"
in Emblems in Glasgow: A Collection of Essays Drawing on the
Stirling Maxwell Collection In Glasgow University Library,
ed. Alison Adams (Glasgow, 1992).
- Laura Mandell, "Bawds and Merchants: Engendering Capitalist
Desires," ELH 59 (1992): 107-23. Argues, based on an
incomplete reading of M's work, that he advanced a theory of
capitalism founded upon female greed.
- M. Bianchi, "How to Learn Sociality: True and False Solutions
to Mandeville's Problem," History of Political Economy 23
(1993): 209-40. Examines BM's discussion of the links between the
passions and social norms and institutions.
- Irwin Primer, "Erasmus and Bernard Mandeville: A
Reconsideration," Philological Quarterly 72 (1993):
313-35. Examines the nature of E's influence on BM.
- Timothy Dykstal, "Commerce, Conversation and Contradiction in
Mandeville's Fable," Studies in Eighteenth Century
Culture 23 (1994): 93-110.
- F. Aqueci, "The Embarrassment of Communication from
Mandeville to Grice," in The Historical Roots of Linguistic
Theories, ed. L. Formigari and D. Gambara (Amsterdam:
Benjamins, 1995): 203-19.
- Kevin L. Cope, "Locke, Mandeville, and the Insignia of the
Future: Terminators, Mutants, Vectors, Plurals, Emblems, Maps,
Targets, Proposals, Narratives," in The Past as Prologue:
Essays to Celebrate the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of ASECS,
ed. C. Hay & S. Conger (New York: AMS Press, 1995), 245-79.
- E. J. Hundert, "Bernard Mandeville and the Enlightenment's
Maxims of Modernity," Journal of the History of Ideas 56
(1995): 577-93. Argues that BM's use of maxims, praised by
Rousseau, provides a crucial context within which to examine
broader discussions of society during the Enlightenment.
- B. Kerkhof, "A Fatal Attraction?: Smith's 'Theory of Moral
Sentiments' and Mandeville's 'Fable,'" History of Political
Thought 16, no. 2 (1995): 219-33.
- F. McKee, "Honeyed Words: Bernard Mandeville and Medical
Discourse," in Medicine in the Enlightenment, ed. R.
Porter (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995), 223-54. Examines BM's use of
dialogues to teach patients to question medical rhetoric.
- E. J. Hundert, "The European Enlightenment and the History of
the Self," in Rewriting the Self: Histories from the
Renaissance to the Present, ed. Roy Porter (London:
Routledge, 1997), pp. 72-83.
- J. Douglas Canfield, "Prostitution as Class Prophylactic in
George Lillo's Adaptation of Shakespeare's Pericles as
Marina," Restoration and 18th Century Theatre
Research 13, no. 2 (Winter 1998), pp. 35-42.
- Kevin Cole, "Mandeville's and Fielding's 'Unmasked Virgins,'"
Notes & Queries 45, no. 4 (Dec. 1998): 459-60.
- D. Francesconi, "Bernard Mandeville e il linguaggio della
'Politeness,'" La Cultura 2 (1998).
- E. Heath, "Mandeville's Bewitching Engine of Praise,"
History of Philosophy Quarterly 15 (April 1998): 205-26.
- John Iverson and Marie-Pascale Pieretti, "Une Gloire
reflechie: Du Chatelet et les strategies de la traductrice," in
Dans les miroirs de l'-écriture: La Reflexivite chez
les femmes écrivains d'-Ancien Regime, ed.
Jean-Philippe Beaulieu and Diane Desrosiers (Montreal, QC :
Departement d'-Etudes Françaises, Université de
Montreal, 1998), pp. 135-44.
- Adelaide Serras, "Sentidos da Violencia: Uma Leitura de
The Beggar's Opera e An Enquiry into the Causes of the
Frequent Executions at Tyburn," in Violencia e Possessao:
Estudos Ingleses Contemporaneos, ed. David Callahan et. al.
(Portugal: Universidade de Aveiro, 1998), pp. 29-35.
- E. Heath, "Critical Study. J. Martin Stafford's Private
Vices Public Benefits?" Hume Studies 25 (April/Nov
- H. Cook, "Bernard Mandeville and 'The Clever Politician,'"
Journal of the History of Ideas 60 (1999): 101-24. Draws a
connection between BM's discussion of the strategies employed by
politicians and physicians to regulate the passions in order to
produce corporeal and political harmony.
- Mauro Simonazzi, "Self Liking, onore e religione nella
Ricerca sull'origine dell'onore e sull'utilita del cristianesmo
in guerra di Bernard Mandeville," Pensiero Politico 32,
no. 3 (1999): 352-82.
- J. Martin Stafford, "Hume on Luxury: A Response to John
Dennis?" History of Political Thought 21, no. 4 (1999):
- Vincenzo Furno, "Bernard Mandeville nella cultura italiena
dei secoli XVIII e XIX," Forum Italicum 32, no. 1 (2000):
- Matthew Hilton, "The Fable of the Sheep, or, Private Virtues,
Public Vices: the Consumer Revolution of the Twentieth Century,"
Past and Present 176 (Aug 2002): 222-56.
- Wilhelm Fuger, "'Bold Truths,' prasentiert als, 'Rhapsody
void of Order or Method,'" in Germanisch-Romanische
Monatsschrift, Neue Folge, Band 52, Heft 1 (Heidelburg,
- J. Martin Stafford, "Mandeville's Contemporary Critics,"
1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early
Modern Era 7 (2002): 387-401.
- Laurenz Volkmann, "Mandeville's Beehive and Smith's Invisible
Hand: Conflicting Voices of Ethics and Economics in Early
Industrialism," in Talking Forward, Talking Back: Critical
Dialogues with the Enlightenment, ed. Kevin L. Cope and
Rüdiger Ahrens (New York: AMS Press, 2002), pp. 13-42. An
interesting new take on an old -- and often forgotten --
connection between Mandeville and the Scottish enlightenment.
- Judith P. Zinsser, "Entrepreneur of the ‘Republic of
Letters': Emilie de Bretenil, Marquise Du Chatelet, and Bernard
Mandeville's Fable of the Bees," French Historical
Studies 25 (Fall 2002): 595-624.
- Tony Lynch and Adrian Walsh, "The Mandevillean Conceit and
the Profit-Motive," Philosophy 78 (Jan 2003): 43-62.
- Annie Mitchell, "Character of an Independent Whig—‘Cato' and
Bernard Mandeville," History of European Ideas 29 (2003):
- Markku Peltonen, The Duel in Early Modern England:
Civility, Politeness and Honour (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
Press, 2003). Chapter 5, "Politeness, Duelling and Honour in
Bernard Mandeville," provides a useful discussion of a central
theme in BM's later work.
- Elizabeth D. Samet, "Spectacular History and the Politics of
Theater: Sympathetic Arts in the Shadow of the Bastille,"
PMLA 118, no. 5 (Oct 2003): 1305-19. Mandeville and
theatricality in a broader European context.
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