P A R A D I S E  L O S T.

B O O K  I.

  Of Man's first Disobedience, and the Fruit 
  Of that forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste 
  Brought Death into the world and all our woe, 
  With loss of Eden, till one greater Man 
 Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat, 
[Note] Sing Heav'nly Muse; that on the secret topsacred
  Of Horeb or of Sinai didst inspire 
  That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed, 
  In the beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth 
 10 Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion hill 
  Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flow'd 
  Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence 
[Note] Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song,Wing,
  That with no middle flight intends to soar 
[Note]15 Above th' Aonian Mount, while it pursuesI pursue
[Note] Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rime.Song.
  And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer 
  Before all temples th' upright heart and pure, 
  Instruct me, for thou know'st: Thou from the first 
 20 Wast present, and with mighty wings outspred 
  Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss 
  And mad'st it pregnant: what in Me is dark, 
  Illumin; what is low, raise and support; 
  That to the highth of this great Argument 
 25 I may assert eternal Providence, 
  And justifie the ways of God to men. 
     Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view, 
[Note] Nor the deep Tract of Hell; say first what causeGulph
  Mov'd our grand Parents, in that happy State 
 30 Favour'd of Heav'n so highly, to fall off 
  From their Creator; and transgress his Will 
  For one restraint, Lords of the world besides? 
[Note] Who first seduc'd them to that foul revolt? 
  Th' infernal Serpent: he it was, whose guile, 
[Note]35 Stirr'd up with envy and revenge, deceiv'd 
  The Mother of Mankind; what time his PrideThee,
  Had cast him out from Heav'n, with all his host 
  Of rebel Angels; by whose Aid aspiring 
[Note]*To set himself in Glory' above his Peers, 
 40 He trusted to have equal'd the Most High, 
  If He oppos'd; and with ambitious aim, 
  Against the Throne and Monarchy of God 
  Rais'd impious war in Heav'n and battel proud 
  With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Pow'r 
 45 Hurl'd headlong flaming from th' ethereal Skie, 
[Note] With hideous ruin and combustion downconfusion
  To bottomless Perdition: there to dwell 
  In adamantin Chains and penal Fire; 
  Who durst defie th'omnipotent to arms. 
 50   Nine times the space that measures day and night 
  To mortal men, He with his horrid crew 
[Note] Lay vanquish'd, rolling in the fiery Gulf,stonish'd
  Confounded, though immortal. But his doom 
[Note] Reserv'd him to more wrath: for now the thoughtthoughts
 55 Both of lost Happiness and lasting Pain 
  Torments him. Round he throws his baleful eyes,Torment
  That witness'd huge affliction and dismay 
  Mix'd with obdúrate pride and steadfast hate. 
  At once, as far as Angels ken, he views 
 60 The dismal situation waste and wild. 
  A Dungeon horrible on all sides round, 
  As one great furnace, flam'd: yet from those flames 
[Note] No light, but rather Darkness visiblea transpicuous Gloom
  Serv'd only to discover sights of woe: 
 65 Regions of sorrow, doleful shades; where peace 
  And rest can never dwell; hope never comes, 
  That comes to all: but torture without end 
  Still urges, and a fiery deluge fed 
  With ever-burning sulphur unconsum'd. 
 70 Such place eternal Justice had prepar'd 
  For those Rebellious; here their pris'n ordain'd 
[Note] In utter darkness; and their portion setouter
  As far remov'd from God and light of Heav'n;So
[Note]As from the Centre thrice to th' utmost Pole. 
 75 O how unlike the place from whence they fell! 
  There the Companions of his fall, o'erwhelm'd 
  With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire, 
  He soon discerns; and weltring by his side 
  One next himself in pow'r, and next in crime, 
 80 Long after known in Palaestine, and nam'd 
  Beëlzebub. To whom th' Arch-enemy, 
  And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words 
  Breaking the horrid silence thus began: 
     If thou beest He! but O how fall'n; how chang'd 
 85 From Him, who in the happy realms of light 
  Cloth'd with transcendent brightness did'st outshine 
[Note] Myriads tho' bright: If He whom mutual league, 
  United thoughts and counsels, equal hope 
  And hazard in the glorious Enterprize 
 90 Join'd with me once; now Misery hath join'ddoth join
[Note] In equal Ruin: Into what Pit thou seestAnd    To what depth
  From what highth fall'n: so much the stronger prov'd 
  He with his Thunder: and till then who knew 
  The force of those dire arms? Yet not for those, 
 95 Nor what the potent Victor in his rage 
  Can else inflict, do I repent, or change 
  (Though chang'd in outward lustre) that fix'd mind, 
  And high disdain from sense of injur'd merit, 
  That with the Mightiest rais'd me to contend; 
[Note]100 And to the fierce Contention brought alongEncounter
  Innumerable force of Spirits arm'd, 
  That durst dislike His Reign; and Me preferring, 
  His utmost pow'r with adverse pow'r oppos'd 
  In dubious battel on the plains of Heav'n, 
 105 And shook his Throne. What. tho' the field be lost? 
  All is not lost; th' unconquerable Will, 
[Note] And study of Revenge, immortal hate;Slow
  And Courage never to submit or yield: 
  And what is else, Not to be overcome? 
[Note]110 That Glory never shall his wrath or mightHomage
  Extort from Me, to bow and sue for grace 
  With suppliant knee; and deifie His powr', 
  Who from the terror of this Arm so late 
  Doubted his Empire: that were low indeed, 
 115 That were an ignominy and shame beneath 
  This downfal: since by fate the Strength of Gods 
  And this empýreal Substance cannot fail; 
  Since, through experience of this great event, 
  In Arms not worse, in Foresight much advanc'd, 
 120 We may with more successful hope resolve 
  To wage by force or guile eternal war; 
  Irreconcileable to our grand Foe, 
  Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy 
  Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heav'n. 
[Note]   So spake th' Apostat Angel, though in pain, 
 126 Vaunting aloud, but rack'd with deep despair: 
[Note] And him thus answer'd soon his bold Compeer.sad    old
     O Prince, O chief of many throned Pow'rs, 
[Note] That led th' embattel'd Seraphim to warled'st
 130 Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds 
[Note]Fearless endanger'd Heav'n's perpetual King; 
  And put to proof his high Supremacy,put'st
  Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate, 
  Too well I see and rue the dire event, 
 135 That with sad overthrow and foul defeat 
  Hath lost us Heav'n, and all this mighty host 
  In horrible destruction laid thus low; 
  As far as Gods and heav'nly Essences 
  Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains 
 140 Invincible, and vigour soon returns; 
  Though all our glory' extinct, and happy state 
  Here swallow'd up in endless Misery. 
  But what, if he our Conqu'rour (whom I now 
  Of force believe Almighty, since no less 
 145 Than such could have o'er-pow'rd such force as ours) 
  Have left us this our spirit and strength intire 
[Note] Strongly to suffer and support our pains?Stronglier
  That we may so suffice his vengeful ire: 
  Or do him mightier service, as his Thralls 
[Note]150 By right of war: whate'er his business be,our
  Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire, 
  Or do his errands in the gloomy Deep. 
  What can it then avail, though yet we feel 
[Note] Strength undiminish'd, or eternal being,have
 155 To undergo eternal Punishment?

     Whereto with speedy Words th'Arch-Fiend reply'd:

[Note]    Fall'n Cherub, To be weak is miserable,Here to dwell
  Doing or Suffering: but of this be sure, 
[Note] To do ought Good never will be our task,will never
 160 But ever to do Ill our sole delight, 
  As being the contrary to His high will 
  Whom we resist. If then his Providence 
  Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, 
  Our labour must be to pervert that end, 
 165 And out of good still to find means of evil: 
  Which oft times may succede, so as perhaps 
[Note] Shall grieve him, if I fail not; and disturbdisturn
  His inmost Counsels from their destin'd aim. 
[Note] But see the angry Victor hath recall'drepress'd
 170 His Ministers of vengeance and pursuitInstruments
 Back to the Gates of Heav'n: The sulphurous Hail, 
  Shot after us in storm, o'er-blown hath laid 
  The fiery Surge, that from the Precipice 
  Of Heav'n receiv'd us falling; and the Thunder, 
 175 Wing'd with red lightning and impetuous rage, 
[Note] Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases nowits
  To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep. 
  Let us not slip th' Occasion, whether scorn 
  Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe. 
 180 Seest thou yon dreary Plain, forlorn and wild, 
  The seat of desolation, void of light, 
  Save what the glimmering of these livid flames 
  Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend 
  From off the tossing of these fiery waves; 
 185 There rest, if any Rest can harbour there: 
  And re-assembling our afflicted Powers, 
  Consult how we may henceforth most offend 
  Our Enemy, our own loss how repair; 
  How overcome this dire calamity; 
 190 What reinforcement we may gain from Hope; 
[Note] If not, what resolution from Despair.none
  Thus Satan talking to his neerest Mate 
  With head up-lift above the wave, and eyes 
  That sparkling blaz'd; his other parts besides 
 195 Prone on the flood, extended long and large, 
  Lay floating many a rood; in bulk as hugelike that
[Note] [As whom the Fables name, of monstrous size, 
  Titanian, or Earth-born, that warr'd on Jove, 
  Briareos, or Typhon whom the Den 
 200 By ancient Tarsus held, or that Sea-beast] 
 Leviathan, which God of all his works 
[Note] Created hugest that swim th' Ocean stream: 
[Note] Him haply slumb'ring on the Norway foam,flood
[Note] The Pilot of some small night-founder'd Skiff,nigh-
 205 Deeming some Island oft, as Sea-men tell, 
[Note] With fixed Anchor in his skaly rind,skinny
  Moors by his side under the Lee; while night 
  Invests the Sea, and wished morn delays: 
[Note]So stretch'd out huge in length the Árch-fiend lay, 
 210 Chain'd on the burning Lake: nor ever thence 
  Had ris'n or heav'd his Head, but that the Will 
  And high permission of all-ruling Heaven 
  Left him at large to his own dark designs: 
  That with reiterated crimes he might 
 215 Heap on himself damnation, while he sought 
  Evil to others: and enrag'd might see 
  How all his malice serv'd but to bring forth 
[Note] Infinite goodness, grace and mercy shewnNew Proofs of
  On Man by him seduc'd; but on himself 
 220 Treble confusion, wrath, and vengeance pour'd. 
  Forthwith upright he rears from off the Pool 
  His mighty Stature; on each hand the Flames 
  Driv'n backward slope their pointing spires, and roll'd 
[Note] In billows, leave i' th' midst a horrid Vale.gaping
 225 Then with expanded wings he steers his flight 
  Aloft, incumbent on the dusky Air 
  That felt unusual Weight, 'till on dry Land 
[Note] He lights, * if it were Land that ever burn'd 
  With solid, as the Lake with liquid fire: 
 230 And such appear'd in hue, as when the force 
  Of subterranean Wind transports a Hill 
  Torn from Pelorus, or the shatter'd side 
  Of thund'ring Ætna, whose combustible 
[Note] And fuel'd entrails thence conceiving Fire,sulfureous
 235 Sublim'd with mineral fury, aid the Winds,take the Wing
  And leave a singed bottom all involv'd 
  With stench and smoak: Such Resting found the Sole 
[Note] Of unbless'd feet.   Him follow'd his next Mate, 
  Both glorying to have scap't the Stygian flood, 
 240 As Gods, and by their own recover'd strength, 
  Not by the sufferance of supernal Power. 
     Is this the Region, this the Soil, the Clime, 
  Said then the lost Arch-Angel, this the Seat 
  That we must change for Heav'n? this mournful Gloom 
 245 For that celestial Light? Be' it so, since He 
  Who now is Sov'rain can dispose and bid 
[Note] What shall be right: farthest from him is best, 
[Note] Whom reason [hath] equal'd, Force hath made supreme 
  Above his equals. Farewel happy Fields, 
 250 Where Joy for ever dwells! Hail horrors, hail 
[Note] Infernal world! and Thou, profoundest Hell,Eternal Woe!
[Note] Receive thy new Possessor; one who bringsWelcome
  A Mind not to be chang'd by Place or Time. 
  The mind is its own place, and in it self 
 255 Can make a Heav'n of Hell, a Hell of Heav'n. 
  What matter where, if I be still the same, 
  And what I should be; all but less than he 
  Whom Thunder hath made greater? Here at least 
[Note] We shall be Free; th' Almighty hath not builtno Butt
 260 Here for his Envy will not drive us hence: 
  Here we may reign secure: and in my choice 
  To reign is worth ambition, tho' in Hell: 
  Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heav'n. 
  But wherefore let we then our faithful Friends, 
 265 Th' associates and copartners of our loss, 
  Lye thus astonish'd on th' oblivious Pool; 
  And call them not to share with us their part 
  In this unhappy mansion, or once more 
  With rallied Arms to try what may be yet 
 270 Regain'd in Heav'n, or what more lost in Hell? 
     So Satan spake, and him Beëlzebub 
  Thus answer'd: Leader of those Armies bright, 
  Which but th' Omnipotent none could have foil'd, 
  If once they hear that Voice, their liveliest pledge 
 275 Of hope in fears and dangers, heard so oft 
  In worst extremes, and on the perilous edge 
  Of battel when it rag'd, in all assaults 
  Their surest signal; they will soon resume 
  New Courage and revive, tho' now they lye 
 280 Grov'ling and prostrate on yon Lake of Fire, 
  As we erewhile, astounded and amaz'd: 
[Note] No wonder, fall'n such a pernicious highth.from such prodigious
     He scarce had ceas'd, when the superiour Fiend 
  Was moving toward the shore; his pond'rous Shield, 
 285 Ethereal temper, massie, large and round, 
  Behind him cast; the broad Circumference 
[Note]Hung on his Shoulders, like the Moon, whose Orb 
  Thro' Optick Glass the Tuscan Artist views 
  At Ev'ning from the top of Fesolé, 
[Note]290 Or in Valdarno, to descry new Lands,Sights,
  Rivers or Mountains in her spotty Globe.Europes or Asias
  His Spear, to equal which the tallest Pine 
  Hewn on Norwegian hills to be the Mast 
  Of some great Admiral were but a wand, 
 295 He walk'd with to support uneasie steps 
  Over the burning Marle, not like those steps 
  On Heavens Azure, and the torrid Clime 
  Smote on him sore besides, vaulted with Fire. 
  Nathles he so endur'd, 'till on the Beach 
 300 Of that inflamed Sea he stood, and call'd 
  His Legions, Angel Forms; who lay entranc'd 
  Thick as auctumnal Leaves that strow the brooks 
  In Vallombrosa, where th' Etrurian shades 
  High over-arch'd embowr; or scatterd sedge 
 305 Afloat, when with fierce winds Orion arm'd 
[Note] Hath vext the Red-Sea Coast: [whose waves o'erthrewRed-Sea Gulph,
  Busiris and his Memphian chivalry, 
  While with perfidious hatred they pursu'd 
  The Sojourners of Goshen, who beheld 
 310 From the safe shore their floating Carcases 
  And broken Chariot Wheels.] So thick bestrown, 
  Abject and lost lay these, covering the Flood, 
  Under amazement of their hideous change.Under th
  He call'd so loud, that all the hollow Deep 
 315 Of Hell resounded: Princes, Potentates, 
  Warriours, the Flow'r of Heav'n, once yours, now lost 
  If such Astonishment as this can seize 
  Eternal Spirits: Or have ye chos'n this place 
  After the toil of Battel to repose 
 320 Your wearied vertue, for the ease you find 
  To slumber here, as in the Vales of Heav'n? 
  Or in this abject posture have ye sworn 
  T' adore the Conqueror? who now beholds 
[Note] Cherub and Seraph rolling in the Flood,on
 325 With scatter'd Arms and Ensigns, till anon 
[Note] His swift pursuers from Heav'n Gates discernwatchful Legions
  Th' advantage, and descending tread us down 
  Thus drooping, or with linked Thunderbolts 
[Note] Transfix us to the bottom of this Gulfe.Fast fix
 330 Awake, arise: Or be for ever fall'n. 
     They heard, and were abash'd, and up they sprung 
  Upon the wing; as when men wont to watch 
  On duty, sleeping found by whom they dread, 
  Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. 
 335 Nor did they not perceive the evil plight 
  In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel; 
[Note] Yet to their General's voice they soon obey'd 
  Innumerable.   As when the potent Rod 
  Of Amram's Son, in Ægypt's evil day 
 340 Wav'd round the coast, up call'd a pitchy cloud 
  Of Locusts, warping on the Eastern Wind, 
[Note] That o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hungimpious Head of
  Like Night, and darken'd all the Land of Nile: 
  So numberless were those bad Angels seen, 
 345 Hovering on wing under the Cope of Hell 
  'Twixt upper, nether, and surrounding Fires: 
[Note] Till, as a signal giv'n, th' uplifted Spearat
  Of their great Sultan waving to direct 
  Their course, in even balance down they light 
 350 On the firm Brimstone, and fill all the Plain. 
[Note] [A multitude, like which the populous North 
  Pour'd never from her frozen loyns, to pass 
  Rhene or the Danaw, when her barbarous sons 
  Came like a Deluge on the South, and spread 
 355 Beneath Gibraltar to the Libyan sands.] 
  Forthwith from every squadron and each band 
  The Heads and Leaders thither haste where stood 
  Their great Commander; God-like shapes and forms 
[Note] Excelling Human, Princely Dignities,Chief among Myriads
 360 And Powers, that erst in Heaven sat on Thrones; 
  Tho' of their names in Heav'nly records now 
  Be no memorial; blotted out and ras'd, 
[Note] By their rebellion, from the Books of Life.Book
  Nor had they yet among the Sons of Eve 
 365 Got them new Names, 'till wandring o'er the Earth, 
  Thro' God's high sufferance for the trial of man, 
[Note] By falsities and lyes the greatest partwiles
[Note] Of Mankind they corrupted to forsakeseduced
  God their Creator, and th' invisibleHis
[Note]370 Glory' of him that made them, to transformUnfigurable Glory
  Oft to the Image of a Brute, adorn'dsenseless Brute,
[Note] [With gay Religions full of Pomp and Gold,] 
  And Devils to adore for Deities. 
  Then were they known to Men by various Names, 
[Note]375 And various * Idols thro' the Heathen World. 
[Note]    Say, Muse, their Names then known, who first, who last,when
[Note] Rouz'd from the slumber on that fiery Couchtheir    off
  At their great Emperor's call; as next in worthand
  Came singly where he stood on the bare Strand; 
 380 While the promiscuous croud stood yet aloof. 
  The chief were those who from the Pit of Hell 
  Roaming to seek their prey on earth, durst fix 
  Their seats long after next the seat of God, 
  Their altars by his altar, Gods ador'd 
 385 Among the Nations round; and durst abide 
  Jehovah thund'ring out of Sion, thron'd 
  Between the Cherubim: yea, often plac'd 
  Within his Sanctuary it self their Shrines, 
  Abominations; and with cursed things 
 390 His holy rites and solemn feasts prophan'd, 
  And with their darkness durst affront his light. 
  First Moloch, horrid King, besmear'd with blood 
[Note] Of human sacrifice, and parents tears;victims, and with
  Tho' for the noise of Drums and Timbrels loud 
 395 Their childrens cries unheard, that past thro' Fire 
  To his grim Idol. Him the Ammonite 
  Worship'd in Rabba and her watry Plain, 
  In Argob and in Basan, to the stream 
  Of utmost Arnon. Nor content with such 
 400 Audacious neighbourhood, the wisest heart 
  Of Solomon he led by fraud to build 
  His Temple right against the Temple' of God 
  On that opprobrious Hill; and made his Grove 
  The pleasant Valley' of Hinnom, Tophet thence 
 405 And black Gehenna call'd, the type of Hell. 
[Note] Next Chemos, th' óbscene dread of Moab's sons,Dread obscéne
  From Aroer to Nebo, and the Wild 
  Of southmost Abarim; in Hesebon 
  And Horonaim, Seon's realm, beyond 
 410 The flow'ry Dale of Sibma, clad with Vines, 
  And Eleala to th' Asphaltic Pool: 
  Peor his other Name, when he entic'd 
  Israel in Sittim on their march from Nile, 
  To do him wanton rites, which cost them woe. 
 415 Yet thence his lustful Orgies he enlarg'd 
  Ev'n to that Hill of scandal, by the Grove 
  Of Moloch homicide, Lust hard by Hate: 
  Till good Josiah drove them thence to Hell. 
  With these came they, who from the bord'ring flood 
 420 Of old Euphrates to the Brook that parts 
[Note] Ægypt from Syrian ground, had general namesBound,
  Of Bäalim and Ashtaroth, those Male, 
[Note] These Feminine. For Spirits, when they please,Female deem'd.
  Can either Sex assume or both; so soft 
 425 And uncompounded is their Essence pure, 
  Not ty'd or manacl'd with joint or limb, 
  Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones, 
  Like cumbrous flesh: but in what shape they chuse 
  Dilated or condens'd, bright or obscure, 
 430 Can execute their airy purposes, 
  And works of love or enmity fulfil. 
  For those the Race of Israel oft forsook 
  Their living Strength, and unfrequented left 
  His righteous Altar, bowing lowly down 
 435 To bestial Gods: for which their heads as low 
  Bow'd down in Battle, sunk before the Spear 
  Of despicable foes. With these in troop 
  Came Astoreth, whom the Phoenicians call'd 
  Astarte, Queen of Heav'n, with crescent Horns; 
 440 To whose bright Image nightly by the Moon 
  Sidonian Virgins paid their vows and songs; 
  In Sion also not unsung, where stood 
  Her Temple on th' offensive Mountain, built 
  By that uxorious King, whose heart tho' large, 
 445 Beguil'd by fair Idolatresses, fell 
  To Idols foul. Thammuz came next behind, 
  Whose annual Wound in Lebanon allur'd 
  The Syrian Damsels to lament his fate 
  In am'rous ditties all a Summer's day: 
[Note]450 While smooth Adonis from his native Rockits
  Ran purple to the Sea, suppos'd with blood 
  Of Thammuz yearly wounded: the Love-tale 
  Infected Sion's daughters with like heat; 
  Whose wanton passions in the sacred Porch 
 455 Ezekiel saw, when by the Vision led 
  His Eye survey'd the dark Idolatries 
  Of alienated Judah. Next came One 
  Who mourn'd in earnest, when the captive Ark 
  Maim'd his brute Image, head and hands lopt off 
 460 In his own Temple; on the grunsel edge 
  Where he fell flat, and sham'd his Worshipers: 
  Dagon his Name, Sea-Monster, upward Man 
  And downward Fish: yet had his Temple high 
  Rear'd in Azotus, dreaded through the coast 
 465 Of Palaestine, in Gath and Ascalon, 
  And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds. 
  Him follow'd Rimmon, whose delightful seat 
  Was fair Damascus, on the fertil banks 
  Of Abbana and Pharphar, lucid streams. 
 470 He also' against the House of God was bold: 
  A Leper once he lost, and gain'd a King, 
  Ahaz his sottish Conqueror, whom he drew 
  God's Altar to disparage and displace 
  For one of Syrian mode; whereon to burn 
 475 His odious off'rings, and adore the Gods 
  Whom he had vanquisht. After these appear'd 
  A crew who under names of old renown, 
  Osiris, Isis, Orus and their train, 
  With monstrous shapes and sorceries abus'd 
 480 Fanatick Ægypt and her Priests, to seek 
  Their wandring Gods, disguis'd in brutish forms 
  Rather than human. Nor did Israel 'scape 
  Th' infection, when their borrow'd Gold compos'd 
  The Calf in Oreb; and the Rebel King 
 485 Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan, 
[Note] [Lik'ning his Maker to the grazed Oxe, 
  Jehovah, who in one Night when he pass'd 
  From Ægypt marching, equal'd with one stroke 
  Both her first-born and all her bleating Gods.] 
 490 Belial came last, than whom a Spirit more lewd 
  Fell not from heaven, or more gross to love 
  Vice for it self: To him no Temple stood 
  Or Altar smok'd; yet who more oft than He 
  In Temples and at Altars, when the Priest 
 495 Turns Atheist; as did Eli's sons, who fill'd 
  With lust and violence the house of God. 
  In Courts and Palaces he also reigns; 
  And in luxurious Cities, where the noise 
  Of riot ascends above their loftiest tow'rs, 
 500 And injury and outrage: And when Night 
  Darkens the Streets, then wander forth the Sons 
  Of Belial, flown with insolence and wine. 
  Witness the Streets of Sodom; and that nightwitness those
  In Gibeah, when the hospitable doorOf    Doors
[Note]505 Expos'd a Matron to avoid worse rape.Yielded their Matrons
     These were the prime in order, and in might; 
  The rest were long to tell, though far renown'd. 
  Th' Ionian Gods, of Javan's issue, held 
  Gods, yet confess'd later than Heav'n and Earth 
 510 Their boasted Parents; Titan, Heav'n's first-born 
  With his enormous brood, and birthright seiz'd 
  By younger Saturn; He from mightier Jove, 
  His own and Rhea's Son, like measure found; 
  So Jove usurping reign'd: these first in Crete 
 515 And Ida known, thence on the snowy top 
  Of cold Olympus rul'd the middle Air, 
  Their highest Heav'n; or on the Delphian Cliff, 
  Or in Dodona, and thro' all the bounds 
  Of Doric Land; or who with Saturn old 
 520 Fled over Adria to th' Hesperian Fields, 
  And o'er the Celtic roam'd the utmost Isles. 
  All these and more came flocking; but with looks 
  Down cast and damp, yet such wherein appear'd 
  Obscure some glimpse of joy, to' have found their Chief 
 525 Not in despair, to' have found themselves not lost 
  In loss it self: which on his count'nance cast 
  Like doubtful hue: but he his wonted pride 
  Soon recollecting, with high words, that bore 
  Semblance of worth, not substance, gently rais'd 
 530 Their fainting courage, and dispell'd their fears. 
  Then strait commands that at the warlike sound 
  Of Trumpets loud and Clarions be uprear'd 
  His mighty Standard; that proud honour claim'd 
  Azázel as his right, a Cherub tall: 
 535 Who forthwith from the glittering Staff unfurl'd 
  Th' Imperial Ensign, which full high advanc'd 
  Shone like a Meteor streaming to the wind, 
  With gemms and golden lustre rich emblaz'd, 
  Seraphic Arms and Trophies; all the while 
 540 Sonorous mettal blowing martial sounds: 
  At which the universal Host up sent 
  A shout that tore Hell's Concave, and beyond 
[Note] Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night.Realm
  All in a moment thro' the gloom were seen 
 545 Ten thousand Banners rise into the air 
  With orient colours waving: with them rose 
  A forest huge of Spears; and thronging Helms 
  Appear'd, and serried Shields in thick array, 
  Of depth unmeasurable'. Anon they move 
 550 In perfect Phalanx to the Dorian mood 
  Of Flutes and soft Recorders; such as rais'd 
  To hight of noblest temper Heroes old 
  Arming to battel, and in stead of rage 
  Deliberate valour breath'd, firm, and unmov'd 
 555 With dread of death to flight or foul retreat: 
  Nor wanting power to mitigate and swage, 
  With solemn touches, troubled thoughts, and chase 
  Anguish and doubt and fear and sorrow and pain 
  From mortal or immortal minds. Thus they 
 560 Breathing united force with fixed thought 
  Mov'd on in silence to soft Pipes, that charm'd 
  Their painful steps o'er the burnt soil; and now 
  Advanc'd in view, they stand, a horrid Front 
  Of dreadful length and dazling Arms, in guise 
[Note]565 Of Warriors old with order'd Spear and Shield,bold with ported
  Awaiting what command their mighty Chief 
  Had to impose. He thro' the armed Files 
  Darts his experienc'd eye, and soon traverse 
  The whole Battalion views, their order due, 
 570 Their visages and stature as of Gods; 
  Their number last he sums, and now his heart 
  Distends with pride; and hard'ning in his strength 
  Glories: For never since created Man 
  Met such imbodied force, [as nam'd with these 
[Note]575 Could merit more than that small Infantry 
  Warr'd on by Cranes:] tho' all the [Giant] brood 
  Of Phlegra with th' Heroic Race were join'd 
  That fought at Thebes and Ilium, on each side 
  Mix'd with auxiliar Gods; [and what resounds 
[Note]580 In Fable or Romance of Uther's Son 
  Begirt with British and Armoric Knights; 
  And all who since, Baptiz'd or Infidel, 
  Jousted in Aspramont or Montalban, 
  Damasco, or Morocco, or Trebisond, 
 585 Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore 
  When Charlemain with all his Peerage fell 
  By Feuntarabia.] Thus far these beyondThese far
  Compare of mortal prowess, yet observ'drival
  Their dread Commander. He, above the rest 
[Note]590 In shape and gesture proudly eminentStature
  Stood like a Towr; his Form had yet not lost 
  All her Original brightness, nor appear'd 
  Less than Arch Angel ruin'd, and th' excess 
  Of Glory' obscur'd. As when the Sun new-ris'n 
 595 Looks thro' the horizontal misty air 
  Shorn of his Beams, or from behind the Moon, 
  In dim Eclipse disastrous Twilight sheds 
  On half the nations, and with fear of change 
  Perplexes Monarchs: Darken'd so, yet shone 
 600 Above them all th' Arch-Angel. But his face 
  Deep scars of Thunder had intrench'd, and Care 
  Sat on his faded cheek; but under browsbrow
[Note] Of dauntless Courage and consid'rate Pridesat
  Waiting revenge. Cruel his Eye, but cast 
[Note]605 Signs of remorse and passion to beholdpity
[Note]The fellows of his crime, the followers rather, 
  (Far other once beheld in bliss) condemn'd 
  For ever now to have their lot in pain; 
  Millions of Spirits for his fault amerc'd 
[Note]610 Of Heav'n, and from eternal splendors flungethereal Splendor
  For his revolt; yet faithful how they stood, 
  Their Glory wither'd. As when Heaven's Fire 
  Hath scath'd the forest Oaks or mountain Pines, 
  With singed top their stately growth tho' bare 
 615 Stands on the blasted Heath. He now prepar'd 
  To speak; whereat their doubled Ranks they bend 
  From wing to wing, and half inclose him round 
  With all his Peers: Attention held them mute. 
  Thrice he assay'd, and thrice in spight of Scorn, 
 620 Tears, such as Angels weep, burst forth: at last 
[Note] Words interwove with sighs found out their way:interrupt
     O Myriads of immortal Spirits, O Pow'rs 
  Matchless, but with th' Almighty! and that strife 
  Was not inglorious, tho' th' event was dire; 
[Note]625 As this place testifies, and this dire change,sad
  Hateful to utter: but what power of mind, 
  Foreseeing or presaging, from the depth 
[Note] Of knowledge past or present, could have fear'd,conceive
  How such united force of Gods, how such 
 630 As stood like these, could ever know repulse? 
  For who can yet beleeve, tho' after loss, 
  That all these puissant Legions, whose exíle 
  Hath emptied heav'n, shall fail to re-ascend 
  Self-rais'd, and re-possess their native seat? 
[Note]635 For Me be witness all the Host of Heav'n,this
[Note] If counsels different, or danger shun'de'er differr'd
  By Me, have lost our hopes. But He who reigns 
  Monarch in Heav'n, 'till then as one secure 
  Sat on his Throne, upheld by old repute, 
 640 Consent or custom, and his regal State 
  Put forth at full; but still his Strength conceal'd, 
[Note] Which tempted our attempt, and wrought our fall.revolt
  Henceforth His Might we know, and know our Own: 
  So as not either to provoke, or dread 
 645 New war, provok'd. Our better part remains 
[Note] To work in close design, by fraud or guileand wile
[Note] What force effected not: that he no lessLesson He
  At length from us may find, Who overcomeslearn
  By force, hath overcome but half his foe. 
 650 Space may produce new Worlds; whereof so rife 
  There went a fame in Heav'n that he ere long 
  Intended to create; and therein plant 
  A generation, whom his choice regard 
  Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven: 
 655 Thither, if but to pry, shall be perhaps 
  Our first Eruption; thither or elsewhere: 
  For this Infernal Pit shall never hold 
  Celestial Spirits in bondage, nor th' Abyss 
  Long under darkness cover. But these thoughts 
 660 Full Counsel must mature: Peace is despair'd, 
  For who can think Submission? War then, War 
[Note] Open or understood must be resolv'd.underhand
     He spake: and to confirm his words outflew 
  Millions of flaming swords, drawn from the thighsBlades
 665 Of mighty Cherubim; the sudden blaze 
  Far round illumin'd Hell: highly they rag'd 
[Note] Against the High'st, and fierce with grasped armsswords
  Clash'd on their sounding shields the din of war, 
[Note] Hurling defiance toward the Vault of Heav'n.Walls
 670    There stood a Hill not far, whose grisly top 
  Belch'd fire and rolling smoke: the rest entire 
  Shone with a glossy scurff, undoubted sign 
  That in his womb was hid metallick Ore, 
  The work of Sulphur. Thither wing'd with speed 
 675 A numerous Brigad hasten'd; As when bands 
  Of Pioneers with spade and pickax arm'd 
  Fore-run the Royal Camp, to trench a Field, 
  Or cast a Rampart.   Mammon led them on, 
  Mammon, the least erected Spirit that fell 
 680 From Heav'n, for ev'n in Heav'n his looks and thoughts 
  Were always downward bent; admiring more 
  The riches of Heav'n's Pavement, trodden Gold, 
  Than ought divine or holy else enjoy'd 
  In vision beatific: by him firston Him Lost.
[Note]685 Men also, and by his suggestion taught,first
[Note] Ransack'd the Center, and with impious handsMountains
  Rifled the bowels of their mother Earth 
  For treasures better hid. Soon had his crew 
  Open'd into the Hill a spacious wound,Opening
[Note]690 And dig'd out ribs of Gold. Let none admireDig'd out the Seeds
  That Riches grow in Hell; that soile may best 
[Note] Deserve the precious bane. And here let thoseBefit
  Who boast in mortal things, and wond'ring tell 
  Of Babel, and the works of Memphian Kings, 
 695 Learn how their greatest Monuments of Fame 
[Note] And Strength and Art are easily out-doneFor
  By Spirits reprobate; and in an hour, 
[Note] What in an age they with incessant toilethose
  And hands innumerable scarce perform.perform'd.
 700 Nigh on the Plain in many cells prepar'd, 
  That underneath had veins of liquid fire 
  Sluc'd from the Lake: a Second multitude 
  With wondrous Art founded the massy Ore, 
[Note] Severing each kind, and scum'd the Bullion Dross:from
 705 A Third as soon had form'd within the ground 
  A various Mold, and from the boiling cells 
  By strange conveyance fill'd each hollow nook: 
  As in an Organ from one blast of wind 
  To many a row of Pipes the Sound-board breaths. 
 710 Anon out of the Earth a Fabrick huge 
  Rose like an Exhalation, with the sound 
  Of dulcet Symphonies and voices sweet, 
  Built like a Temple, where Pilasters round 
  Were set, and Doric Pillars overlaid 
 715 With golden Architrave: nor did there want 
  Cornice or Freeze, with bossy Sculptures grav'n; 
[Note] The Roof was fretted Gold. [Not Babylon, 
  Nor great Alcairo such magnificence 
  Equal'd in all their glories, to inshrine 
 720 Belus or Serapis their Gods, or seat 
  Their Kings, when Ægypt with Assyria strove 
  In wealth and luxury.] Th' ascending pile 
  Stood fix'd her stately highth; and straight the doors 
  Op'ning their brazen folds discover wide 
[Note]725 Within her ample spaces, o'er the smoothAnd high
  And level pavement: from the arched roof 
  Pendent by subtle Magic, many a row 
  Of starry Lamps and blazing Cressets, fed 
  With Naphtha and Asphaltos yielded light 
 730 As from a Sky. The hasty multitude 
  Admiring enter'd, and the work some praise 
  And some the Architect: his hand was known 
  In Heav'n by many a Towred structure high; 
  Where Sceptred Angels held their residence, 
[Note]735 And sat as Princes: whom the supreme KingKing supreme
  Exalted to such power, and gave to rule, 
  Each in his Hierarchy, the Orders bright. 
  Nor was his name unheard or unador'd 
[Note]In ancient Greece; and in Ausonian Land 
 740 Men call'd him Mulciber; and how he fellVulcan    once he
  From Heav'n, they fabl'd; thrown by angry Jove 
  Sheer o'er the Crystal Battlements: from Morn 
  To Noon he fell, from Noon to dewy Eve, 
  A Summer's day; and with the setting Sun 
 745 Dropt from the Zenith like a falling Star, 
[Note] On Lemnos, th' Ægean Isle. Thus they relate,thence His
  Erring; for he with this rebellious rout 
  Fell long before; nor ought avail'd him now 
  To' have built in Heav'n high Tow'rs: nor did he scape 
 750 By all his Engins; but was headlong sent 
  With his industrious crew to build in Hell. 
     Mean while the winged Heralds by command 
  Of Sov'rain pow'r, with awful ceremony 
  And Trumpet's sound, throughout the Host proclame 
 755 A solemn Council forthwith to be held 
  At Pandæmonium, the high Capital 
  Of Satan and his Peers. Their summons call'd 
  From every Band and squared Regiment 
  By place or choice the worthiest. They anon 
 760 With hundreds and with thousands trooping came 
  Attended: all access was throng'd, the gates 
  And porches wide, but chief the spacious Hall 
[Note] [Though like a cover'd field, where Champions bold 
  Wont ride in arm'd, and at the Soldan's Chair 
 765 Defy'd the best of Paynim Chivalry 
  To mortal Combat, or carriere with Lance] 
  Thick swarm'd, both on the ground and in the air, 
  Brush'd with the hiss of rusling Wings. As Bees 
[Note] In spring-time, when the Sun with Taurus rides,in
 770 Pour forth their populous youth about the hive 
  In clusters: they among fresh Dews and Flours 
  Fly to and fro; or on the smoothed Plank, 
  The Suburb of their Straw-built Citadel, 
  New rub'd with Baum, expatiate and confer 
 775 Their State affairs. So thick the aery crowd 
  Swarm'd and were straiten'd; till the Signal giv'n, 
  Behold a wonder, They but now who seem'd 
  In bigness to surpass Earth's Giant Sons 
  Now less then smallest Dwarfs, in narrow room 
 780 Throng numberless: like that Pygmaean Race 
  Beyond the Indian Mount; or Fairy Elves, 
  Whose midnight Revels by a Forest side 
  Or Fountain some belated Peasant sees, 
  Or dreams he sees; while over-head the Moon 
 785 Sits Arbitress, and neerer to the Earth 
[Note] Wheels her pale course: They on their mirth and danceCarr
  Intent, with jocond Music charm his ear: 
  At once with joy and fear his heart rebounds. 
  Thus incorporeal Spirits to smallest forms 
 790 Reduc'd their shapes immense; * and were at large, 
  Though without number still amidst the Hall 
[Note] Of that infernal Court. But far within, 
  And in their own dimensions like themselves, 
  The great Seraphic Lords and Cherubim 
 795 In close recess and secret conclave sat, 
  A thousand Demi-gods on golden seats, 
[Note] Frequent and full. * After short silence then, 
  And summons read, the great Consult began. 

V. 6. That on the secret top Of Horeb.] Secret Valleys, secret Caves, come frequently in Poetry; but secret top of a Mountain, visible several Leagues off, is only met with here. Our Poet dictated it thus, That on the sacred top Of Horeb: from Exod. iii. 5 Moses came to the mountain of God, Horeb. And God said, Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. So our Author, V. 619. VI. 25. Sacred Hill. And Spenser, in Fairy Queene, I. 10. 54; and as frequently in the Classic Writers, Mos Sacer, hieron oros. Some perhaps may prefer the present Reading, Secret top; because in most Countries the high Mountains have against rainy Weather their Heads surrounded with Mists. True, but yet it's questionable, whether in the wide and dry Desert of Arabia, Mount Horeb has such a cloudy Cap. I have in my Youth read several Itineraries, where the Travellers went up to the Top of Horeb; and I remember not, that they take notice of its Cloudiness. And a just Presumption lies against it from Holy Writ, Exod. xvii; where the Israelites, encamp'd a the foot of Horeb, could find no Water; which was provided miraculously, when Moses smote the Rock with this sacred Rod: for all Natural History informs us, and Reason vouches it, That a Mountain, whose Head is cloudy, has always running Springs at its Foot. But allowing all, and granting that Horeb was like the European Hill; yet not Poet hitherto has on that account said The Secret; but the Cloudy, Misty, Hazy, Grey Top. Nay, allow further, That Secret Top is a passable Epithet; yet it is common to all Mountains whatever: but Horeb, whose Ground was holy, Horeb the Mountain of God, Exod. iii. 1; I Kings xix. 8, deserved a Peculiar Epithet. If therefore (which the best Poets have adjudg'd) a Proper Epithet is always preferable to a General one; and if Secret and Sacred are of a near Sound in Pronunciation; I have such an Esteem for our Poet; that which of the two Words is the better, That, I say, was dictated by Milton.

V. 13. To my adventurous Song, &c.] Some Acquaintance of our Poet's, entrusted with his Copy, took strange Liberties with it, unknown to the blind Author, as will farther appear hereafter. 'Tis very odd, that Milton should put Rime here as equivalent to Verse, who had just before declar'd against Rime, as no true Ornament to good Verse, but the Invention of a barbarous Age, to set off wretched Matter and lame Meter. I am persuaded, this Passage was given thus:

Invoke thy aid to my adventurous wing,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th'
Aonian Mount; while I pursue
Things unattempted yet in Prose or song.

Let's examin the Particulars: Wing, the properest here of all Metaphors, which is justified and prov'd by the following Words, Flight, and Soar. So III. 13.

Thee I revisit now with bolder Wing.

And IX. 45.

Damp my intended Wing.

Nor let it be objected; that in the IX, the Wing is intended by the Poet, but here the Wing it self intends. For that is an allow'd Figure, and frequent in the best Writers. So II. 727.

O Father, what intends thy Hand, she cried.

And 738.

That my sudden Hand
Prevented spares to tell thee yet by Deeds,
What it

V. 15. While it pursues.] The Author, I believe, gave it in the first Person. While I pursue; as III. 15.

While in my flight I sung of Chaos.

V. 16. In Prose or Rime] The Author gave it,

Things unattempted yet in Prose or Song.

But the 13th Verse being once chang'd into Adventurous Song, that Word could not be here repeated; and so for Song was substituted Rime. It may be said, He took Rime from Ariosto, Cant. I.

Cosa, non detta in Prosa mai, ne in Rima.

But Ariosto's Poem is in Rime, Milton's neither in Rime nor Prose: So that this Argument is even yet unattempted in either of them. But it's v. 150.

Flow'd from their lips in Prose or numerous Verse:

And in the Mask, one of his Juvenile Poems;

    For I will tell you now
What never yet was heard in
Tale or Song.

V. 28. Nor the deep Tract of Hell.] Tract is properly not a deep, to hide from view; but a plane expanded Surface, expos'd to view;

Terrasque tractusque maris, caelumque profundum.

Better therefore, Nor the deep Gulph of Hell. So II.12.

For since no Deep within her Gulph can hold
Immortal vigour

And often besides.

V. 33. Who first seduc'd them to that foul revolt? Th'infernal Serpent.] A manifest Imitation of Homer, Iliad, I. 8.

Tis t' ar sphôe theôn eridi xuneêke machesthai
Lêtous kai Dios huios.

V. 35. Deceiv'd The Mother of Mankind.] I believe the Author spoke it thus, in address to Eve: which will raise the Sense;

Thee, Mother of Mankind.

V. 39. To set himself in Glory' above his Peers.] Our Poet had not at first so settled his whole Scheme, as to be uniform and selfconsistent in all its Parts. Satan's Crime was not, to aim above his Peers: God himself had plac'd him above them; as Abdiel the good Angel says to Satan, V. 812.

In place thy self so high
above thy Peers.

His Ambition was to be above the Messiah, as it is at large shewn in the Sequel. Put it therefore thus,

To Place and Glory' above the Son of God.

So V. 662.

     Satan fraught,
With Envy' against the
Son of God, &c.

Aspiring to a Throne is a juster Phrase, than Aspiring to set ones self on a Throne.

V. 46. With hideous ruin and combustion down.] Having said in Verse before, Hurl'd headlong Flaming; he superfluously adds Combustion. But I doubt not, he gave it thus,

With hideous ruin and Confusion down.

So II. 995. Spoken of the same Event;

With Ruin upon ruin, rout on rout,
Confusion worse confounded.

V. 52. Lay vanquish'd] Vanquish'd is too low a Word for the Occasion. They were more than vanquish'd, even while in Heaven, VI. 851.

     Of their vigour drain'd
Exhausted, spiritless, afflcited, fall'n.

Our Author gave it, Lay Stonish'd. Stonish'd, stonied, stounded, stunn'd; common in the elder Poets. So here, v. 266.

Lie thus astonish'd on th'oblivious Pool.

v. 281.

As we erewhile astounded and amaz'd.

And in the Argument: Satan with his Angels, lying on the burning Lake, thunderstruck and astonish'd.

Ibid. Rolling in the fiery Gulf.] The Poet gave it,

Rolling on the fiery Gulf.

As it has been twice quoted already. So v. 195.

His other parts behind Prone on the flood.

v. 210.

Chain'd on the burning Lake.

v. 280.

Grov'ling and prostrate on yon Lake of Fire.

V. 54.     But now the thought
Both of lost Happiness and Lasting Pain
Torments him.]

The Thought of Happiness, and then the Thought of Pain, are not One, but Two. So that it's probable, Milton gave it in the Plural, The Thoughts torment him.

V. 63. No Light, but rather Darkness visible.] Darkness visible and Darkness palpable are in due place very good Expressions: but the next Line makes visible here a flat Contradiction. Darkness visible will not serve to discover Sights of Woe through it, but to cover and hide them. Nothing is visible to the Eye, but so far as it is Opake, and not seen through; not by transmitting the Rays, but by reflecting them back. To come up to the Author's Idea, we may say thus,

No Light, but rather A transpicuous Gloom

Gloom is equivalent to Darkness; yet so as to be in some measure transparent. So here, v. 544.

All in a moment through the Gloom were seen.

v. 244.

     This mournful Gloom
For that celestial Light.

II. 858.

Into this Gloom of Tartarus profound.

VIII. 14.

Through the wide transpicuous Air.

V. 72. In utter Darkness, As far remov'd from God.] Utter Darkness is absolute Darkness, and gives no notion of Place and Remoteness. The Poet therefore gave it, outer Darkness, as in Scripture, To skotos ti exôteron. So III. 16, read,

Through outer, and through middle Darkness born.

V. 74. As from the Center thrice to th'utmost Pole] From the Center to the utmost Pole is vitious: The Distance is much too little, and might have been doubled thus with ease,

As thrice from Arctic to Antarctic Pole.

I would thus express it without any Comparison from things known to Us; which, though never so excessive, must needs fall too short:

So far remov'd from God and Light of Heav'n;
Distance, which to express all Measure fails.

V. 87. In the brightness didst outshine Myriads, tho' bright.] Imitated from Homer, Odys. z. 110, where Diana excels all her Nymphs in Beauty, though all of them be beautiful.

Reia t' arignôtê peletai, kalai de te pasai.

V. 91. Now Misery hath join'd In equal ruin.] See the Series of the whole Sentence; Whom mutual League, united Counsels, equal Hope and Hazard in our Revolt join'd with me once, viz. in close Friendship; Now Misery has join'd; in what? in closer Friendship? no, in equal Ruin. Great Sense, and great Comfort in this dire Calamity. Our Author spoke it,

Now Misery doth join
And equal Ruin.

Equal Ruin, in reddition to equal Hope, now again joins us in a stricter Friendship. He had in view that celebrated Passage of Ovid's Metam. I,

O soror, O conjux, O femina sola superstes,
Quam commune mihi genus & patruelis origo,
Deinde torus junxit;
nunc ipsa pericula jugunt.

Ibid. In equal Ruin. Into what Pit thou seest.] The Measure of this Verse is wrong; unless you make Ruin a Monosyllable; which no Poet, I believe, has yet done. Milton always allows it two Syllables: as here, v. 46. With hideous Ruin and combustion down. He spoke it thus,

And equal Ruin. To what Depth thou seest
From what Highth fall'n!

Depth is the natural Opposition to Highth, and not Pit. V. 542.

To disobedience fall'n,
And so from Heaven to deepest Hell.

V. 100. Rais'd me to contend, And to the fierce Contention.] Very dry this, and jejune. Contend, and presently again Contention, I believe our Author gave it,

And to the fierce Encounter brought along.

So II. 718.

Millions of fierce encountring Angels fought.

Spenser's Fairy Queen. I. 1. 1.

As one for Knightly Justs, and fierce Encounters fit.

V. 107. And study of Revenge, immortal Hate.] And comes not well here; when Hate, that follows, has no Conjunction; and it slackens the course of Passion, which loves Asyndeta. Besides, Study wants its Epithet. Perhaps he gave it, slow, as II. 337. Revenge, tho' Slow. And I. 604. Waiting Revenge.

V. 100. That Glory never shall his wrath or might
Extort from me, to bow and sue for grace.

Glory is improper here: what is extorted from Satan, should be something from within him, his own Act, his Submission to sue for Grace. But Glory, viz. of God, is extrinsical to Satan, not extorted from him, but a remote Consequence of his Submission. Better therefore in my Opinion thus,

That Homage never shall his wrath or might
Extort from me.

V. 125.     Though in pain;
Vaunting aloud, but rack'd with deep Despair.

This is embarrass'd: Though in pain, But in despair, which But is Though again; and a contrary Idea coming in the middle. Besides,

Though in pain is low and vulgar. And Aloud is unnecessary, when he spake to one close by his Side. Better thus, at once:

So spake th' Apostat proud, with outward Vaunt,
But inly rack'd with Pain and deep Despair.

V. 127. And him thus answer'd soon his bold Compeer.] From the Words soon and bold, one would conceive a Character of the following Speech, as breathing Courage and Defiance. Milton, except here, always answers the Expectation he raises. But Belzebub in his following Answer is quite heartless and desponding. Who'll not believe the Author gave it thus?

And him thus answer'd sad his old Compeer.

As V. 94.

Thus Adam answer'd sad.

His old dear Companion; as Satan calls him, V. 673.

V. 129. That led; and 131, endanger'd.] If led and endanger'd, and put, be right; then the Sense is, Thrones, Powers, that led, &c. But it's better applied to Satan alone; and not make Belzebub commend himself and other Thrones for what Satan had made his own sole Glory. Therefore the Poet gave it, ledst, and endanger'dst, and put'st: as V. 737. Laugh'st; Par. Reg. IV. 156. Reflect'st; 493. Storm'st; 619. Hold'st.

V. 131. And in dreadful deeds, fearless.] If fearless be the right Reading; then the dreadful deeds must be those of Michael and the good Angels. But it's plain that they are here meant of

Satan's Crew; for so II. 549;

     Others sing
Their own
Heroic deeds, but hapless fall.

The Author therefore gave it,

    And in dreadfull deeds
Peerless, endangerd'st Heaven's perpetual King.

So here, Satan says, v. 113.

Who from the terror of this Arm so late
Doubted his Empire.

Peerless, matchless; as IV. 608.

     'Till the Moon
Apparent Queen, unvail'd her
peerless light.

And so II. 487. Satan is call'd, Their matchless Chief; and VI. 246, spoken of the same Battel:

     Till Satan who that Day
Prodigious power had shown, and
met in arms
No equal.

Paradise Regain'd, I. 233.

By matchless deeds Express thy matchles Sire.

Fairfax in Tasso, III. 59.

Peerless in fight, in counsel grave and sound.

Ibid. Endanger'd Heaven's perpetual King.] The Word perpetual does not accord with the rest: for by Them who acknowledg'd him perpetual, he could not be thought endanger'd. Better thus,

Peerless, endangerd'st Heaven's original King.

King from time immemorial; none heard of before him; as here, v. 639.

Monarch in Heaven, upheld by old Repute.

V. 147. Strongly to suffer and support our Pains.] The Sense plainly requires, What, if God has left us our Strength entire, to suffer our Pains the more strongly? Therefore the Author gave it,

Stronglier to suffer and support our pains?

So he always uses to contract such Words into two Syllables; as in the following Verse,

And do him mightier service in the deep.

And VI. 731.

And gladlier shall resign.

So happier, worthier, &c.

V. 150. Whate'er his business be.] His Business? God to work in Fire, or to do his own Errands in Hell? These Businesses Belzebub supposes God would injoin the Devils. He gave it therefore,

Whate'er our business be.

As v. 159. our task.

V. 154. Or eternal being.] To feel Strength or eternal being, is an improper Expression: for if Being in general may be felt; yet they could not feel it as it is Eternal: for then they could not have feard Annihilation, as Belzebub does, II. 146. The Author spoke it,

have eternal being.

So II.98.

       Happier far,
Than miserable
to have eternal being.

Or it may be varied thus,

Strength unimpair'd; enjoy eternal being.

V. 157. To be weak is miserable.] The Printer here has bestowed upon our Poet absolute Nonsense. To be weak is not by consequence to be miserable. Adam was frail and weak, even while he was happy in Paradise. But it's not Answer to Belzebub's Speech. He complain'd not of Weakness; on the contrary, he own'd that Vigour was return'd, and their Strength was undiminsh'd: but he doubted what God's Design was in placing them in Hell, whether they should work for him, or merely suffer pain. To which Satan here should answer, That either way, working or suffering, 'twas miserable for them to live in Hell. The Author therefore gave it,

To be here is miserable.

Or rather thus,

Fall'n Cherub, here to dwell is miserable.

As II. 57.

And for their dwelling place
Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame.

And II. 86.

What can be worse, Than to dwell here?

And I. 47.

To bottomless Perdition, there to dwell
Enchain'd in adamant and circling Fire.

V. 159. Never will be our task.] Smoother and stronger Accent thus,

To do ought Good will never be our task.

V. 167. And disturb ---- from their destin'd aim.] To disturb from aim, instead of divert, avert, does not reach up to our Poet's usual Exactness. I persuade my self, he gave it,

To disturn
His inmost counsels from their destin'd aim.

The Sense is unexceptionable, and the Word is authoris'd by our Chaucer, in Troilus and Cressid. III. 719.

---- And all this harm disturn.

In two other places, his Copies, perhaps erroneously, now have it, misturn. Distornare, a vulgar Word, Italic; as Gallic Detourner. And who knows not Milton's Inclination to revive old Words, or even coin new ones, especially with the Italian Stamp?

V. 169. Hath recall'd His Ministers of Vengeance.] That is, the Good Angels; whom our Author in his first Three Books describes, as pursuing the vanquish'd Rout with Fire and Thunderbolts, down through the Chaos, even to Hell's Gates. This is a fine Idea; but in the Sixth Book, where Raphael makes the Narrative of those Battels, the Author chang'd this Idea for another, yet better; making the Messiah alone perform all himself, Michael and all his Hosts standing still, and looking on. So that Satan's Crew leap'd down spontaneously from Heaven; Fire and Thunder pursuing them, but no Angels. As VI. 864.

      Headlong themselves they threw
Down from the verge of Heav'n: eternal wrath
Burnt after then to the bottomless Pit.

So in Paradise Regain'd, I. 90.

When His fierce Thunder drove us to the Deep.

These few Passages therefore must be alter'd, to make this noble Poem consistent; and 'tis pity the blind Author had so good an Excuse for not doing it himself. This before us, may be thus adjusted,

But see the angry victor hath repress'd
His instruments of vengeance, and pursuit
That drove us down to Hell;

First Instruments in general mention'd, then specified Hail and Thunder.

V. 176. Perhaps hath spent his shafts.] Thunder here is not made a Person; so that the Author gave it, its shafts.

V. 191. If not, what resolution.] What reinforcement; to which is return'd If not: a vicious Syntax: but the Poet gave it, If none.

V. 197. As whom the Fables name.] These four Lines from the Fables I am unwilling to believe Milton's. He compares Satan here to a Whale, so big as to be mistaken for a Promontory of Land. What need then of these fabulous Monsters, vulgar and known to the lowest Schoolboys, which make the sentence to lag, and the sense to dwindle? To be in the Den of Tarsus, doth not make Typhon the bigger: and Briareos Four Syllables, for Briareus Three,

Et centugeminus Briareus & belua Lernæ,

cannot be justified. For though Hesiod has Briareôs, it's pronounc'd Briarôs, as Kronideô is Cronidô. Lastly, to call a Whale the Sea-beast, what stuff is it? I leave them therefore to the Reader, content to set a Mark upon them, as supposing them, and more hereafter of this sort, spurious; and as knowing by other Passages, that our Poet, blind, and then poor and friendless, had frequently foul Play.

V. 202. Created hugest, that swim th' Ocean stream.] This Verse as Accents very absonous. To smooth it, I take the Rise from v. 196. ejecting the four Lines intermediate;

         In bulk like that
Leviathan, whom God the vastest made
Of all the Kinds, that swim the Ocean stream.

And note, that v. 201. for which God, &c. the Author must have given it whom; since in the Line following he says him.

V. 203. On the Norway foam.] We allow Foam to be sometimes put for Sea or Water by our best Poets, especially those that are forc'd to it for Rime. As Spenser in his Epithalamion says to the Sun,

Haste thee, thou fairest Planet, to thy home
      Within the Western

But here it comes unhappily; for it must be very solid Foam, that can support a sleeping Whale. Better therefore with plain Simplicity, Flood or Deep.

V. 204. Night-founder'd Skiff.] Foundering in the Sea Phrase is sinking by a Leak in the Ship. So that Night alone never can founder. Besides, Night is here superfluous; for in the close of this same Comparison he has Night again, While Night invests the Sea. The Poet gave it thus,

The Pilot of some small nigh-founder'd Skiff;

Nigh-founder'd, almost founder'd. A good Excuse, why in that Extremity, and in the Dark, they took a Whale for firm Land: so II. 940. speaking of Satan caught in a sort of Bog,

Nigh-founder'd on he fares.

Our Poet in VII. 412. describes this Leviathan again, as sleeping on the Deep like a Promontory, or swiming like a moving Land: Could he have revised his whole Work, he would have avoided the Repetition.

V. 206. In his skaly rind.] Skaly rind is unlucky here; for it falls out contrary, that the Whale has no Skales; or if he had them; by Proportion with other Fish, they would be so large, thick, and solid, that no Seaman could fix his Anchor through them. But the Author gave it otherwise,

With fixed Anchor in his skinny rind.

'Tis truly a Skin, so soft and thick, as to make it not incredible, that a small Anchor may be fix'd there without the Whale's feeling the Wound. They are struck with Harping-Irons, which cannot pierce a skaly Crocodile.

V. 209. So stretch'd out huge in length the Árch-fiend lay.] Here Arch-fiend has the Tone in the first Syllable, disagreeably; better above v. 156. Th' Arch-fíend replied. Besides, so stretch'd out, that is, as the Whale lies stretch'd out. But that is improper; for the Whale cannot stretch out or contract any of his Joints: he is always of the same Length; whether his Tail be bent or straight. Better therefore thus,

So vast, stretch'd out in length, th'Arch-rebel lay.

Arch-rebel, as v. 81. Arch-enemy. See VII. 414.

V. 218. Infinite goodness.] Infinite goodness, in other Places, very proper, seems here a little too high. For Justice and rigid Satisfaction was exacted for Adam's Sin: As the Poet sets it forth in Books III. and X. Rather therefore here,

New proofs of Goodness, Grace, and Mercy shewn.

V. 224. Leave i'th' midst a horrid Vale.] When Satan rais'd himself out of the Lake; by that Motion he made the fiery Waves to mount and roll on both sides of him, and in the midst, under him made a hollow. This is describ'd from Nature. But why is that Hollow peculiarly call'd Horrid? surely, the quiet Vale between was less horrid than the surrounding and tossing Billows with their threatning Spires. I would therefore have made it thus,

In Billows, leave i'th'midst a gaping Vale.

V. 228. If it were Land that ever burn'd.] This Verb were instead of Propriety about the Name, makes a Doubt about the Thing. Rather therefore,

If Land it might be call'd, that burn'd.

Ever burn'd, without doubt; and that's inculcated on every Page. But it's needless here; 'tis enough for the Doubt what to call it, if it was burning at that time.

V. 234. Combustible And fuel'd entrails] Our Author here endeavours at a lofty Description of Mount Ætna; but as his Editor has us'd him, he expires in a swoln and empty Bombast. Who else ever said Fuel'd? or allowing it, is it not the very same with Combustible? And what is, Aid the Winds? Does the subterraneous Wind Aid it self? Nonsense. Or aid the natural Winds, that blow regularly? a desirable Aid indeed. Let's try, if we can retrieve the Author's Words:

        Whose combustible
Sulfureous Entrails, thence conceiving Fire,
Sublim'd with mineral Fury,
take the wing.

A bad Writer and a blotted Copy might cause such Mistakes.

V. 238. Of únbless'd feet.] Better accent thus, the sole of feet unbléss'd.

V. 247. Farthest from Him is best.] This is express'd from the Greek Proverb, Porrhô Dios te kai keraunou: Far from Jupiter, but far too from Thunder.

V. 248. Whom Reason hath equal'd.] Both Sense and Measure are damag'd by that hath, which could not come from the Poet.

V. 251. Infernal world! and Thou, profoundest Hell.] 'Tis certain, that Infernal World here and profoundest Hell mean the very same; so that Satan addresses himself twice to One thing, as if it were Two. A Fault, neither to be forgiv'n Milton, nor suspected of him. But I am persuaded, he gave it,

Hail, Horrors! Hail eternal woe.

But this the Editor thought to be a Saying too desperate, even for the Devil himself, and therefore he chang'd it into Infernal World; not attending, that by this he made the Passage Tautology. But Satan's Character is the better kept up by his saluting and congratulating Eternal Woe. He knew well, that was his unchangeable Doom; and he was not scared with the mere Word. This paints him to the Life, his obdurate Mind, his unconquerable Will, His Courage never to submit or yield. So that to salute and welcome His own Punishment, shews a Temper and Disposition truly Satantical.

V. 252. Receive thy new Possessor.] After the preceding Words Farewell and Hail; He could scarce miss going on in the same Salutation Stile,

welcome thy new Possessor.

As in his History of Britain, p. 63. To welcome their new General, and in Christ's Nativity a Juvenile Poem.

To welcome him to this his new Abode.

V. 259. God hath not built Here for his Envy.] To raise Sense from mere Nonsense is much easier and surer of Acceptance, than to raise still Better Sense from Good or Tolerable. No doubt, God built Hell, as a Receptacle for Satan and his Crew: but to say, He built it not for his own Envy, as if he could ever wish to change Places with them, is something extravagant. Let's reduce Milton's own Words:

      Th' Almight hath no butt
Here for his Envy; will not drive us hence.

No Butt, no Object, no Scope for his Envy here; He cannot think the Place too good and delightful for us.

V. 282. Fall'n such a pernicious Highth] Fall'n a highth is not common Sense: and a Pernicious Highth is not a whit better. The Poet gave it,

No wonder, fall'n from such prodigious Highth.

Fall'n from, as v. 92.

From what Highth fall'n,

and V. 542.

       O Fall
From what high State of Bliss into what Woe!

And here v. 173. That from the Precipice Of Heav'n receiv'd us falling. From which last Passage some perhaps will rather read it here,

No wonder fall'n from such precipitous Highth.

V. 287. Like the Moon, whose Orb, &c.] The Moon, as she appears to the naked Eye, is too small a Comparison. As it's magnified by the Telescope, it is the fittest one possible. But this Magnifying the Author quite omits here; and so the Optic Glass is brought in impertinently. It should have been thus, or something like it;

      The broad Circumference
Shone spacious, like the Moon, whose Orb enlarg'd
Thro' Optic Glass.

Flung on his Soulders is already intimated in Behind him cast.

V. 290. To descry new Lands.] Rivers and Mountains are included in Lands; nor can They be descried through the best Glasses Now improv'd: much less Then by the Tuscan Artist. Would it not be better thus?

      ---- To descry new Sights,
Europes or Asias in her spotty Globe.

Our Author, or rather our Editor, as is there shewn, has Galileo and his Glass again, Book V. 261.

V. 306. Hath vex'd the Red-Sea Coast.] Sedge floated, because the Winds had vex'd the Coast. Why the Coast? when the Sedge could only be torn up and float by the Winds vexing the Water, where the Sedge grew. Besides, The Red-Sea Coast, whose Waves is a strange Syntax; when in due Construction it cannot be the Red-Sea's Waves, but the Coast's Waves, quite absurd. We cannot doubt, the Author gave it,

Hath vex'd the Red-Sea Gulph.

As it is commonly call'd, now and then too, The Arabian Gulph.

Ibid. Whose waves o'erthrew Busiris.] Here again, I suspect his Friend's Courtesy bestow'd six Lines upon our Poet. They are in the Whole impertinent, and in Parts vicious. What's that single event of Moses's passing that Sea, to a constant Quality of it, that in stormy Weather it is strow'd with Sedge? whence in our Bible it's call'd Jam Suph, the Sedgy Sea. Did that Passage perpetually increase the Quantity of scatter'd Sedge? And what Authority for making Pharaoh to be Busiris; their Times and Characters no ways agreeing? Again, Chivilry for Cavalry, and Cavalry for Chariotry, twice wrong. Besides, our Author, XII. 205. describes the same Passage of Moses with all its Circumstances, and much better than here.

V. 324. Rolling in the Flood.] The same Mistake of the Printer here again repeated, in for on the Flood. See above v. 52.

V. 326. His swift Pursuers.] Our Poet's first Idea, mention'd before v. 170, continues yet, That the Victor Angels pursued the others to Hell. To accommodate this Place to the Sequel, it may be alter'd thus,

His watchful legions from Heav'n Gates discern.

V. 329. Transfix us to the bottom.] To transfix is to pierce quite through the Body,

Illum exspirantem transfixo pectore flammas,

and its Signification is there bounded and closed: so that to Transfix to a thing, or on a thing cannot be justly said. I believe our Poet gave it thus,

Fast fix us to the bottom of this Gulph.

In II. 180. Shall be hurl'd Each on his Rock transfix'd, the Construction is, Hurl'd on his Rock, not Transfix'd on his Rock;

Turbine corripuit, scopuloque infixit acuto.

If perhaps even there it was not dictated,

Each on his Rock infix'd.

V. 337. To their General's voice obey'd.] It has been said, that obey to a Voice, instead of what is now legitimate, obey a Voice, was first innovated by Milton. But Chaucer and Spenser generally speak so: He as in the Legend of Women,

That as an Harp obeyeth to the Hand,

The other in Fairy Queen III. 11. 35.

Lo! now the Heav'ns obey to me alone.

V. 342. That o'er the Realm of impious Pharaoh.] Here's want of Attention, not of Judgment, in our Author: The Realm of Pharaoh, and the Land of Nile are both one and the same. To avoid this Tautology, it may be chang'd thus,

That o'er the impious head of Pharaoh hung.

V. 347. As a Signal giv'n.] The uplifted Spear was not as a Signal, but the Signal itself. The Author gave it, Till at a Signal giv'n.

V. 351. A multitude, like which.] I suspect the following five Verses to be spurious. After he had compared the Devils for number to the Cloud of Locusts that darken'd all Ægypt, as before to the Leaves that cover the Ground in Auctumn; 'tis both to clog and to lessen the Thought, to mention here the Northern Excursions, when all Human Race would be too few. Besides, the Diction is faulty: Frozen Loins are improper for Populousness: Gibraltar is a new Name, since those Inroads were made: and to spread from thence to the Libyan Sands, is to spread over the Surface of the Sea.

V. 359. Forms Excelling Human.] After God-like Shapes to add that they Excell Human Shape is to sink instead of rising. He is speaking of Arch-angels, who excell'd even among Angelic Forms. Among many ways, it may be alter'd thus,

Chief among Myriads, Princely Dignities.

V. 363. From the Books of Life.] The Author spoke it, Book of Life, according to the Scriptures, not plural.

V. 367. By Falsities and Lies.] How are Falsities distinguish'd here from Lies? From the Author it might come thus,

By Falsities and wiles.

V. 368. Corrupted to forsake.] Rather seduced.

V. 370. Glory of him that made them.] In the Verse before he had said Creator, and now adds Him that made them, which is Creator over again. All this Passage is negligently done, as if the Poet was then tired or sleepy.

V. 372. Adorn'd With gay Religions.] A Brute adorn'd with Religions, and Religions full of Gold are Expressions to me unintelligible. The whole Passage may be something mended thus,

God their Creator; His invisible
Unfigurable Glory to transform
Oft to the Image of a
senseless Brute;
And Devils to adore for Deities.

Leaving out one whole Line, as not capable of Emendation.

V. 375. And various Idols thro' the Heathen World.] Why only the Heathen World? When the first and most he names Moloch, Chemos, Baal, Ashtoreth, &c. were worship'd in Israel too. The Word Idols is here used in a Sense uncommon. Better therefore,

By various Names,
And various
attributes through all the World.

Attributes, Powers, Numina; as Mars for War, Venus for Love, Minerva for Arts, &c.

V. 376. Say, Muse, their Names then known.] He must needs have given it, when known. Here in Imitation of Homer and Virgil, who give Catalogues of their Captains and Forces, our Author gives a List of the principal Devils with their Characters; but 'tis not the finest Part of his Poem.

V. 377. Rouz'd from the Slumber on that fiery Couch.] Surely he gave it thus;

Rouz'd from their Slumber off that fiery Couch.

Rouz'd off rather than slumber on.

V. 393. With Blood Of human Sacrifice, and Parents Tears.] At first reading this strikes one, as if it was The Blood of Tears. To avoid which, he had better have said,

Besmear'd with Blood
Of human
victims, and with Parents Tears.

V. 406. Th'óbscene Dread of Moab's Sons.] This is harsh Accent. Better thus,

Next Chemos, Dread obscene of Moab's Sons.

V. 421. That parts Ægypt from Syrian ground.] I believe, he dictated it,

Ægypt from Syrian bound.

V. 423. Those Male, These Feminine.] Feminine does not respond to Male, but to Masculine. This therefore would be better,

        These Male,
female deem'd.

Deem'd, thought so, by their Worshipers: for it was nothing but Opinion.

V. 450. Adonis from his native Rock.] To prevent the Reader from mistaking Adonis for the smooth and youthful Person, which is here the River; it were better,

While smooth Adonis from its native Rock.

V. 486. Lik'ning his Maker.] These four Verses could not be Milton's, but foisted in by the Man he trusted his Copy with. Pass'd from Ægympt marching, is quite wrong, for Exod. xi. it's said, God went out into the midst of Ægypt. Likening to an Ox we have had before v. 371.

The Glory of him that made them did transform
Oft to the Image of a Brute:

And the grazed Ox is both silly and superfluous: the rebel King Jeroboam doubled the Sin of Aaron who had one Calf, Exod. xxxii. by making two Calves, I King xii. So that doubled the Sin expresses the matter fully; and better calf than Oxe. Neither did Jeroboam understand by it his Maker Jehovah; since he made two Calves, that could not represent one God. And in regular Construction Jehovah is not referable to Maker; but to the next substantive Oxe; so that it's the Oxe Jehovah, that pass'd through Ægypt. Then what's equal'd with one Stroke? does that sufficiently express, that they were slain? and lastly, All her bleating Gods is beyond all Sufferance: the Ægyptians had No bleating Gods; not worshipping Sheep, only abstaning from eating them,

Lanatis animalibus abstinet omnies Ægyptus.

If they had worship'd them, Juvenal would here have said it. And in the Text 'tis only said The First-born of Men and all Cattle: not a Word about their Gods. Add to these the Impertinence of the whole: for how has God's slaying the First-born of Ægypt any relation to Jeroboam's two Calves, any more than every other Action ascribed to God in the whole Scripture?

V. 505. Witness the Streets of Sodom, and that night In Gibeah.] Here's an Alteration made here, varying from the First Edition: which gave it in the plural number,

     When the hospitable Doors
Yielded their Matrons to avoid worse rape.

Agreeable to the Scriptures, and preferable to the present Reading. Doors; both in Sodom and Gibeah: Matrons, because Two were yielded and offer'd in each place: in Sodom, Gen. xix. 8. in Gibeah, Judges xix. 24. The Editor has made three or four more Changes from the first Impression, and every one for the worse. In This, he confines the Fact to Gibeah alone: and so deserts the Streets of Sodom, that age called on to witness nothing at all. But the Author too has incurr'd some blame; who after naming the Streets of One, says the Night in the Other; when there were equally concern'd Streets of Both, and Night in Both. Give the whole thus, with a slight Amendment on the First Edition:

Witness the Streets of Sodom; witness those
Of Gibeah: when the hospitable Doors
Yielded their Matrons to avoid worse rape.

V. 543. Frighted the Reign of Chaos.] Surely he did not use Reign, as Regnum sometimes, for the Region, the Space: 'tis more credible that he gave it,

Frighted the realm of Chaos and old Night.

V. 565. Of Warriors old.] We had a little before, v. 552. Heroes old. So that it's probable, rather than admit so near a Repetition, he gave it,

Of Warriors bold with ported Spear and Shield.

Ported, as IV. 980. not order'd,

Began to hem him round with ported Spears.

V. 575. That small Infantry Warr'd on by Cranes.] To call the Pygmees small infantry has been justly censur'd, as looking like a Pun, from small Infants, as well as Foot-Soldiers. But for that Reason, and more from Milton's known Learning, I take leave to think it spurious; because the Pygmies must have been call'd not Infantry, but Cavalry; since they fought not on Foot, but riding upon Rams and Goats, Insidentes arietum caprarumque dorsis. Besides, the Pygmees come over again v. 780. I read therefore the Passage thus, that Pun ejected;

Met such imbodied force: though all the Brood
Phlegra, &c.

There's no need to add Giant, the Fable being universally known.

V. 580. In Fable or Romance of Uther's Son, &c.] Milton indeed in his Prose works tells us, That in his Youth he was a great Lover and Reader of Romances: but surely he had more Judgment in his old Age, than to clog and sully his Poem with such Romantic Trash, as even then when he wrote was obsolete and forgot. To stuff in here a heap of barbarous Words, without any Ornament or Poetical colouring, serving only to make his own Argument, which he takes from the Scripture, to be suppos'd equally Fabulous, would be such Pedantry, such a silly boast of useless Reading, as I will not charge Him with: let his Acquaintance and Editor take it. I connect the true Lines thus, throwing out the middle Impertinence.

Mix'd with auxiliar Gods.      These far beyond
Compare of
rival Prowess.

Rival, emulous Prowess; for after he had introduced Homer's Auxiliar Gods, 'twas not sufficient to place These above Mortal. And thus in v. 587. has no Sense, and shews itself and the rest to be interpolated.

V. 590. In shape and gesture proudly eminent Stood like a Tow'r.] I cannot comprehend, what's the Gesture of a Tower: but I am sure, our Poet gave it,

In Shape and Stature proudly eminent.

All of them were (v. 570.) in Visage and Stature like Gods, but Satan eminent and transcendent above them all. And yet this has been represented, as a celebrated Line.

V. 603. But under brows Of dauntless Courage.] What's Brows of Courage? No doubt the Author spoke it,

But under brow
Sat dauntless Courage and considerate Pride.

Under the Brow the Forhead, not Brows, sub fronte, in superciliis, is the Seat of Haughtiness and Pride both in Nature and all good Poetry.

V. 605. Signs of Remorse and Passion to behold.] Passion is improper here, its signification too wide, comprehending Disdain, Rage, &c. quite contrary to Remorse. But without Question, the Poet's Words were,

Signs of Remorse and pity to behold.

Remorse for Himself, Pity for Them; as by and by v. 620. Thrice Tears burst from his Eyes, before he could speak to them.

V. 606. The Fellows of his Crime, the Followers rather.] This rather, this correction of what he had said before, has something little and low in it. For if the Word wanted correcting, why was it put down here. Besides, the Correction offer'd is wrong: all were not Followers. The Arch-angels, his Compeers; were Fellows of his Crime; the lower Angels, the Vulgar of Heaven seduc'd by him, were his Followers. Better therefore without any Affectation,

The Fellows and the Followers of his Crime.

V. 610. And from eternal Splendors

flung.] Splendors must mean here the Persons of the happy Angels: as V. 249. He calls them Cælestial Ardors. But the Poet must mean here the Place, not the Company of Heaven: he gave it therefore,

Of Heav'n, and from ethereal Splendor flung.

V. 621. Words interwove with Sighs.] To interweave Words and Sighs together, passes, I presume, all human Skill, and is peculiar to Satan. But the Author gave it,

Words interrupt with Sighs found out their way.

He had Ovid in his thought, Metam. xi. 420.

Ter conata loqui, ter fletibus ora rigavit,
Singultuque pas interrumpente querelas.

Sir Philip Sidney in his Arcadia, much read by our Milton, is in love with this Expression; His Words interrupted continually with Sighs: Again, but the Breath almost form'd into Words, was again stop'd by her, and turn'd into Sighs. And again,

This said, at length he ended
His oft
Sigh-broken Ditty.

Fairfax xii. 26.

Her Sighs her dire Complaints did interlace.

V. 625. And this dire change.] Dire event, and in the next Line dire change could not come from our Author, who was never barren of Words. He must have said it, And this sad change.

V. 628. Could have fear'd.] The Ideas here contradict each other, What Power of mind could have fear'd? It should have been something, that shew'd Ability and Intellect, not Fear, the defect of them. Better therefore thus,

What power of mind —— could conceive
How such united force, &c.

V. 635. Be witness all the Host of Heav'n.] Not the whole Host of Heaven; The two Thirds continuing in Faith and Happiness, could not be here his Witnesses: The Author gave it,

For me be witness all this Host of Heav'n,

This present Audience, once part of the Heavenly Host. So v. 136. And all This mighty Host.

V. 636. If counsels different, or danger shun'd.] Counsels different may pass with vulgar Approbation: but yet there's no hint in all the Poem, that Satan differs from all the Council, or acted without their Consent. I suspect the Author gave a better Word with a finer Notion thus,

If Counsels e'er differr'd, or Danger shun'd.

If Counsels, publickly resolv'd on, were ever delay'd by my Sloth, or Dangers shun'd by my Fear.

V. 642. Which tempted our attempt.] This Jingle, that seems studiously sought, has been censur'd deservedly. But let it lie at the Editor's Door; and let's believe Milton gave it,

that tempted our revolt, and wrought our Fall.

V. 646. By Fraud or Guile.] In II. 188. he says,

For what can force or guile with Him?

And II. 41.

Whether by open war or covert guile.

These are right: Force and open War are distinguish'd from Plot and Guile. But what difference at all betwixt Fraud and Guile? Therefore he must have given it,

Fraud and Guile, or rather, Fraud and wile.

V. 647. That he no less At length from us may find.] No less is in an unusual Sense here, if in any. I with the same Letters propose a different Word, (whether it be Restoring or Altering, let others judge) in a new Sense:

What force effected not. That lesson He
At length from us may find, Who overcomes
By force, hath overcome but half his foe.

That Maxim, that Aphorism, Who overcomes, &c. is justly call'd a Lesson; as our great Poet Spenser I. 8. 44.

This Days ensample hath this Lesson dear
Deep written in my Hearth with Iron Pen,
That Bliss may not abide in state of mortal Men.

And II. 7. 4.

Need teacheth her that Lesson hard and rare,
That Fortune all in equal lance doth sway.

And perhaps for Find it was given learn, as Milton VI. 717.

There let them learn, as likes them, to despise.

V. 662. War then, War Open or understood.] Here's a nice Fault, that cheats the Reader, and passes unobserv'd. In II. 187. He has it right,

War therefore, open or conceal'd, alike
My Voice dissuades.

Yet here, designing the very same meaning, he has Open or understood. But surely what is understood, is not conceal'd, but open. Let's restore therefore the Author's own Word,

Open or underhand must be resolv'd.

V. 667. With grasped Arms Clash'd on their Shields.] The known Custom of the Roman Souldiers, when they applauded a Speech of their General, was to smite their Shields with their Swords. Arms therefore here is too general, including Shields themselves, Helmets, and all. Better thus,

And with their grasped Swords Clash'd on &c.

And in v. 664. for Swords, put it Millions of flaming Blades.

V. 669. Hurling defiance toward the Vault of Heav'n.] What is this Vault of Heaven? Hell needed a Vault, to inclose all the Damned, and hinder their Eruption; often mentioned by our Author, as I. 298.

The torrid Clime vaulted with Fire.

And 345.

Hovering on wing under the Cope of Hell:

But Heaven here meant, the Habitation of God and Angels, far above the Sphere of Fixt Stars, was never describ'd as Vaulted, nor once so hinted by Milton. To what purpose a Vault there? from the imagin'd Soil, the Plain of Heaven, the Ethereal Highth extends in Infinitum. This our Spenser well imagin'd: To Our visible Heaven, he assigns the Orb of Stars for a Vault, in Hubbard's Tale,

What so the Heav'n in his wide Vault contains:

But to the Heaven where Angels reside, quite contrary: to Them

God gave the Heav'ns, illimitable Heighth;
Not this round Heav'n which we from hence behold.

So he says in his Heavenly Love; and in his Heavenly Beauty thus,

For far above these Heav'ns which here we see,
Be others far exceeding these in Light;
bounded, nor corrupt, as these same be;
infinite in Largeness and in Hight.

But allowing that these Heavens were vaulted, yet if the Devils hurl'd toward that Vault, they hurl'd quite beyond the Mark: for their Enemies did not reside in the Vaults, but on the Plains of Heaven. Instead of Vault the Author must have given it,

Hurling Defiance toward the walls of Heaven.

As II. 343.

Heav'n, whose high Walls fear no Assault or Siege.

And VI. 860.

The Crystal Wall of Heav'n.

V. 685. By him, and by his Suggestion.] He assigns as Two Causes Him and His Suggestion: Is it not one and the same thing? In so beautiful a Poem this ought not to be suffer'd. It may be thus alter'd,

In Vision Beatific, on him Lost,
Men also first by His Suggestion taught.

V. 686. Ransack'd the Center.] Whatever is beyond Possibility does not elevate the Stile, but depress it and make it ridiculous. To ransack as deep as the Center had been bad enough; but it's still worse to ransack the Center it self, a single Point, whence nothing could be got. How much better, agreeably to Truth and Nature,

Ransack'd the Mountains,

the Seat of all Metals, as Milton well knew: so here v. 660.

There stood a Hill stor'd with metallic Ore;

And v. 690.

Open'd into the Hill a spacious Wound.

V. 690. And dig'd out Ribs of Gold.] They could not dig out Ribs of Gold; when presently v. 703. they melt the Ore, and scum off the Dross. Better therefore thus,

Op'ning into the Hill a spacious Wound;
Dig'd out
the seeds of Gold.

V. 692. Deserve the precious Bane.] He does not design here to accuse Hell, but Riches. And yet when he says Deserve the Bane; the Accusation is turn'd from Riches to Hell. Better therefore thus,

Befit the precious Bane.

Befit, Beseen, Become. Unless you will invert the Phrase,

The precious Bane may best that Soil deserve.

V. 696. Monuments of Fame And Strength and Art.] Here are Three things distinguish'd for Monuments, Fame, Strength, and Art. But if you separate Strength, as in the Ægyptian Pyramids, and Art, as in the celebrated Tombs and Temples; what has Fame alone to support her, or how could she rise or subsist? The Author therefore gave it,

           Monuments of Fame
For Strength and Art are easily outdone.

V. 698. They ----- perform.] When he had spoke of Babylon and Memphis, and their old Monuments; he forgets, and goes to the present Ages, What they perform. Better thus,

What in an Age those with incessant Toil
And Hands innumerable scarce

V. 704. And scum'd the Bullion Dross.] A strange Blunder to pass through all the Editions. Who ever heard of Bullion Dross? Bullion is the purified Ore, Dross is the Scum and Refuse of it. The Author gave it,

Severing each kind, and scum'd from Bullion Dross.

Scum'd the Dross from the Bullion; as Spenser II. 7. 36.

Some scum'd the Dross, that from the Metal came,
Some stir'd the
molten Ore with Ladles great.

Which Words Molten Ore reminds me of a vile Fault in the preceding Verse: Found out the Ore; so all the Editions except the First, instead of Founded, melted, from Fundere. Flando, fundendo, seriundo, the Money-Tribunes Motto.

V. 717. Not Babylon, Nor great Alcairo, &c.] Here again are Five Lines, under Suspicion of Spuriousness, and their Faults must lie at the Editor's Door. In this same Narration the Author had challeng'd Babylon and Memphis, v. 694. and now, as quite forgetful, he is made to reiterate it, Babylon and Alcairo. This latter the worse; because Alcairo is a Modern Name, and not fit to join with Belus and Serapis. But a worse Fault is that of Prosody, which Milton would scarce be guilty of, Sérapis for Serápis; as Martial,

Vincebat nec quæ turba Serápin amat.

And Callimachus,

       Tê cheras toi,
Sarapi, tou d' oisous
Echoutin Hêperitai.

And the Pieces of Verse, thus disjoin'd by the Editor, voluntarily unite themselves,

The Roof was fretted God; th'ascending Pile.

V. 725. Within her ample spaces.] Within makes an Ambiguity: design'd indeed for an Adverb, but looks like a Praeposition. Rather thus,

        Discover wide
And high her ample Spaces.

V. 735. Whom the súpreme King.] A harsh Accent; He must have given it, The King supréme; as he does every where else.

V. 739. In ancient Greece, &c.] This is carelessly express'd. Why does not he tell his Name in Greece, as well has his Latin Name. And Mulciber was not so comman a Name as Vulcan. It may be alter'd and pointed thus:

Greece Hephaestos, in th' Ausonian Land
Men call'd him
Vulcan: and how once he fell.

V. 746. On Lemnos, th'Aégæan Isle.] A scandalous Fault; Aégæan with a wrong Accent for Ægéan, as Spenser II. 12. 13.

Amid th' Ægéan Sea long time did stray.

Perhaps it was given thus,

On Lemnos, thence his Isle.

From the time and on occasion of that Fall, the Island was sacred to him, and call'd by his Name; Vulcania Lemnos. The Ægéan Sea, common and right, because but One: but Ægéan Isle, spoke by no body; there being so many Islands in that Sea.

V. 763. Though like a cover'd Field.] Here's another Intrusion of Four spurious Lines; unworthy of admittance. The immense Hall of Pandæmonium compar'd to a Saracen's Tent; a first rate Man of War to a Skuller. Wont ride in arm'd, scurvy Accent. Put the two Ends together, But chief the spacious Hall Thick swarm'd; and they plainly shew, they were violently parted asunder by a rude Hand.

V. 769. When the Sun with Taurus rides.] With Taurus? Does Taurus then ride too; a Constellation Fix'd? But He gave it, in Taurus rides; as X. 329. While the Sun in Aries rode: though there all the Editions have it erroneously, rose.

V. 786. Wheels her pale Course.] I question not, but he gave it, Wheels her pale Carr, Her Chariot.

V. 792. Reduc'd their Shapes immense; and were at large.] By being at large, the Author means, being not crouded: as XI. 626. And now swim in Joy, Ere long to swim at large. But here it's shocking at first Reading: contrasting their Shapes to the smallest Size, and yet being at Large. To avoid the Ambiguiuty, it had better be thus,

Nor wanted Room, Though without number.

V. 797. After short silence then.] It may be rais'd by changing the order,

When after silence short.