Inorganic and Materials Chemistry Laboratory 448 - Spring 2015

ANNOUNCEMENTS

Tuesday January 20th CHECK IN (all students 1:00-2:30 pm) and instrumentation instruction (2:30-5:00) Friday January 23rd, special lecture

GENERAL INFORMATION

Instructor

Prof. John Sheridan, Olson 230, Ext. 1058

 

Teaching Assistants

Rajani Bhat (Olson 344) and Lei Chen (Olson 344)

 

Lecture

Wed., 1:00-2:20 PM Smith Hall-240

Laboratory

Tues. 1:00-5:15 PM, Fri. 1:00-5:15 PM LSC 110

 

You will work in pairs for each of the 6 experiments. Following the guidelines given below, you will independently submit a report for each experiment.

 

Text

Individual handouts or downloads for each experiment; see also relevant weblinks and books on reserve at the library.

Exam and Grading

There will be a final exam covering material from the laboratory experiment and lectures. Overall course grade will be determined according to the following scheme:
Laboratory Reports A-F: 6 x 12% = 72%
Final Exam: 28%

EXPERIMENTS

Each student does the following 6 multi-part experiments on a staggered and rotating schedule so that no experiment is simultaneously done by more than 3 groups (see schedule).

NO STUDENT WILL BE ALLOWED TO START THE LABORATORY UNTIL THEY HAVE PAID FOR THE FEE CARD IN THE STOCKROOM. NO EXCEPTIONS!

Organic and Organometallic Chemistry (4 sessions per experiment)

A. Epoxidation of an α-β-unsaturated ketone. Tosylhydrazone cleavage of an α-β-epoxy ketone. Oxidative KMnO4 cleavage of an alkyne. CLICK HERE
B. Homogeneous catalysis. Nickel-catalyed isomerization of hept-3-ene and Grignard Cross-Coupling. CLICK HERE
C. Organometallic chemistry. Reactions of bis(cyclopentadienyl)iron(II), ferrocene. CLICK HERE


Inorganic and Polymeric Materials (4 sessions per experiment)

D. Transition-metal-catalyzed polymerization reactions. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization, atom transfer free radical polymerization, and GRIM synthesis of a conjugated polymer CLICK HERE
E. Inorganic materials.
X-ray crystallography and nanoparticle synthesis. CLICK HERE
F. Organometallic polymer chemistry. Synthesis of a ferrocene-based polymer via ring-opening polymerization. CLICK HERE

CLICK HERE to get supplementary material for the lab reports, spectra, etc.

General Guidelines for Performing Experiments

Be prepared! Before each session you must read the experimental procedure in advance and perform any necessary calculations. This will allow you to manage your time better and have everything prepared in advance for each step of the procedure. Delays caused by having to go to the stockroom frequently, or to clean glassware may prevent you from finishing the lab. Also, if the material is sensitive, delays can cause the experiment to fail due to decomposition. DO NOT RUSH! A good synthetic chemist gets the experiment done in time, in good yield and with a minimum of impurities. However, having to rush may cause the experiment to fail or produce impure products. For example, if a sample is not fully dried this will show up in the spectral data. If you manage your time well, there is ample time to finish without rushing.

Wash glassware carefully and dry it in an oven before use and when you have finished. Do not leave dirty apparatus for the next group!! Dispose of all wastes in the appropriate containers. Do not flush anything down the sink that is toxic!!

Protective eye-wear must be worn at all times in the lab. Latex or vinyl gloves should be worn when transferring or weighing chemicals or solvents, then disposed of.

AT THE END OF EACH SESSION, RETURN THE GLASSWARE FOR EACH LAB BACK TO THE STOCK CABINETS (THE INSTRUCTOR OR TA WILL CHECK FOR COMPLETENESS). THERE IS A LIMITED NUMBER OF SOME EQUIPMENT ITEMS, DO NOT SEQUESTER IT.

LABORATORY REPORTS

Guidelines for Submitting Laboratory Reports

The outline of your report should follow the headings listed in the report outline below. Please assemble all vertical-format pages right side up and all horizontal-format pages with top at left. Staple or clip the report at the top left.

Although you will be conducting the experiments in pairs you are responsible for recording your own data and for writing and submitting your own laboratory report.

Spectra (NMR, IR, GCMS) should be obtained and interpreted. Make all spectral assignments and annotations that point out important aspects of the data directly on the spectra and DO NOT write separate text for this except in extraordinary cases.

Typewritten reports are required. Neat and well-organized write-ups are more likely to receive high grades.

For your lab reports drawings of the relevant reactions schemes are required. For this purpose you should use the program Chemdraw. Rutgers currently has a site license for ChemDraw. Anyone with a Rutgers email address can download the software. First login at the Rutgers software portal, search for ChemDraw, and click on the "Cambridgesoft" link. Students must then register with ChemDraw to obtain the software.

Pay careful attention to formulas. Write them properly; for example, [Bu4N][PF6] is the salt called tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate; the [ ] denote complex ions. Also, if you name a compound, use the IUPAC nomenclature from your Organic or Inorganic Textbooks

Reports must be handed in after completion of the experiment according to the attached schedule. For every 2 days late you will receive 90% of the grade you would have gotten if it were handed in on time. For example, an A turns into a B after two days and into a C the fourth day, and into a D six days after its due date, etc.

Report Outline

1. Introduction

A brief (one page) summary of the experiment in your own words, including a reaction scheme (use ChemDraw and draw this yourself; do not copy from other students or from a website). You may wish to emphasize aspects that you found particularly interesting.

2. Experimental Section - Lab Notebook Pages

(submit copies of the original lab notebook pages, do not rewrite them). An extremely important aspect of any lab is to make careful observations. Weights, melting and boiling points, color changes, evolution of gases and changes in temperature are examples of observations that may indicate something important is occurring. Make detailed notes in your lab notebook as you perform the experiments. Copies of these notes must be submitted in this section of your write-up and should include weights, observations, details of the procedure followed, etc.

3. Results

Record all mass yields, calculate percent yields of the products, and show your calculations, based on the correct molecular weights of reactants and products and accounting for counterions and solvents of molecules of crystallization if necessary. Also show the molecular weight calculations for polymers using all data available.

4. Discussion

Explain the spectral data of your products with notations on the spectra and use this to prove that you have the correct compounds. If the spectra are poor and contain impurities, explain what the impurities are and why they are present. For example, NMR and IR spectra will indicate the purity of your product and whether it is wet, and a mass spectrum may have many peaks due to different isotopes of some of the elements in the compounds. The MS may also show some impurities that have to be pointed out. Similarly, GPC data may show low molecular weight impurities in your polymers. Also compare your experimental MW data (GPC, NMR) with theroretical molecular weights as appropriate. You must account for all these observations in this section of your report.

A short discussion of the chemistry involved is also expected; you should discuss important experimental observations in the context of the chemistry involved. Answer the questions in the handouts in this section. Relevant information is given in the lectures and by the professor and TA's during the lab sessions -- listen carefully during the labs. Additional information is available in relevant text and compilations in the library as well as through weblinks that are provided.

The goal of your report is to explain YOUR observed experimental data in the context of the expected results. Reports that merely explain what the data should be and not the observed results will receive low grades.

5. Spectra

Attach all of your spectral data with notations to the end of your report. Put your spectra in experimental order and with in that: GC/MS, then IR, then 1H NMR, followed by 13C NMR; and finally GPC or CV data as appropriate. Also include additional spectra provided on the website and assign them just like the ones you acquired. For the organic experiment, pay attention to the authentic spectra in the handouts, which are of materials of high purity. Learn how to recognize common impurities that may show up in your spectra, particularly solvents (including spectral solvents).

SCHEDULE FOR CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS*

SCHEDULE IS CORRECT AS OF 1/19/2015

Lab (Sessions)

1

2

3

4

5

6

 

Date Lab Performed

1/27-2/6

2/10-2/20

2/24-3/6

3/10-3/27

3/31-4/10

4/14-4/24

4/28-5/1

Report Due Date

2/27

3/10

3/24

4/10

4/24

5/4

 

Exp. A

[1,3] [2,5] [4,6,19]

[9,12] [11,21] [7,8,10]

[14,15,22] [16,20] [13,17,18]

 

 

 

M

Exp. B

[13,14] [15,18] [16,17,21]

[1,4,6] [20,22] [2,3,5]

[7,8] [9,19] [10,11,12]

 

 

 

A

Exp. C

[10,22] [7,8,12] [9,11,20]

[13,17] [16,19] [14,15,18]

[3,4] [2,6] [1,5,21]

 

 

 

K

Exp. D

 

 

 

[2,7] [10,18] [4,15,19]

[3,20] [8,17,22] [5,12,14]

[11,21] [6,9] [1,13,16]

E

Exp. E*

 

 

 

[9,11,22] [16,21] [1,6,13]

[4,18] [10,15] [2,7,19]

[8,14] [12,5] [3,17,20]

U

Exp. F**

 

 

 

[12,14] [5,17] [3,8,20]

[1,11] [13,6] [9,16,21]

[7,15,19] [4,22] [2,10,18]

P

* Note that two separate reports are required for Experiment E; the report on the X-ray experiment should be handed to Prof. Lalancette.
** You need to start the first part of Experiment F during the previous session.