Rutgers University Libraries Evolution of the Global System: Africa

Library Basics

Restricted Access

Many of the resources listed in the sections below are marked Restricted Access. You should have no problem connecting to these from any networked computer on campus. However, in order to use these from off-campus, you must log in with your Rutgers NetID. For instructions see the Libraries' Remote Access to Library Resources.

Off-Campus Links

When linking to Rutgers-restricted resources from off-campus use the "Off-Campus Link" provided on this page to connect to that database or article. This link is formulated so that if you have not already logged in with your NetID [your pegasus username and password] you will automatically be taken to the login page. Use the link embedded in the citation to access these resources on campus.


To get to readings that your instructor may have placed on Reserve in the Library, click here. Once you get to the Lookup box, the easiest way to get to the right list is to search by the Instructor's name.

IRIS: Find Books

IRIS is the online catalog for all the Rutgers University Libraries except the Newark and Camden Law Libraries. Use IRIS to find out if the Rutgers Libraries have the specific books or journals that you need, or to locate books on topics that you're researching. Show Me How

Getting Books From Other Rutgers Libraries

If a book that you need is not available (not owned/checked out) at the Dana Library, but is available from another Rutgers Library, you can request delivery of that book to Dana by bringing up the record for the book in IRIS and clicking on tbe Deliver/Recall button. Show Me

Book Not Available/Not Owned by the Rutgers Libraries?

The fastest way to get a copy of a book that is not owned or not available (checked out/on Reserve/missing etc.) at the Rutgers Libraries is to request it through E-Z Borrow. E-Z Borrow books are normally received within about five working days. Tell Me More

If a book is not owned by the Rutgers Libraries and is not available via E-Z Borrow, you can place an Interlibrary Loan request. Tell Me More

Becoming an 'Expert' User

Want to maximize your use of Library resources? Check out Searchpath, the Libraries' interactive tutorial.

Citing Your Sources

You will most likely be using Chicago/Turabian style when citing the sources that you use in your research papers. The Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian's Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations are both available at the Dana Library Reference Desk. The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison also has a nice introduction to Chicago/Turabian Documentation that will give you the basic information you need to create bibliographic citations.

The above site does not, however, cover citing online resources. The Library of Congress has a guide on How to Cite Electronic Sources that show Turabian-style examples; the Bedford/St. Martin's site also offers useful information on Using Chicago Style to Cite and Document Sources

You can also import references from IRIS and many of the electronic databases into RefWorks, a web-based bibliography and database manager. RefWorks will build your bibliography for you based on whatever style sheet you specify (MLA, Chicago, etc.). For information on setting up your (free) RefWorks account see the RefWorks FAQ.

Not sure when you need to cite something? Check out the Plagiarism Guide

Remember that plagerism is a violation of the Rutgers University Policy on Academic Integrity for Undergraduate and Graduate Students and could result in your dismissal from the University!

Getting Started: Basic Resources

There are two major multi-volume surveys of African history:

  • The Cambridge History of Africa. J.D. Fage and Roland Oliver, eds. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1975-1986. 8 volumes
    Each volume consists of articles by (primarily Western) scholars accompanied by extensive bibliographies. Vol. 4: From c.1600 to c.1790. Vol. 5: From c.1790 to c.1870 Vol. 6: From 1870 to 1905. Vol. 7: From 1905 to 1940. Vol. 8: From c.1940 to 1975.
    Dana Call Number: Ref. DT20 .C28
  • General History of Africa. UNESCO International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1981-1993
    Each volume consists of articles by (primarily non-Western) scholars accompanied by extensive bibliographies. Vol. 5: Africa From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Vol 6: Africa in the Nineteenth Century Until the 1880s. Vol. 7: Africa Under Colonial Domination, 1880-1935. Vol 8: Africa Since 1935
    Dana Call Number: DT20 .G45 1981


Bibliographies are great for finding out what has been written/is available on a specific topic.

Cooper, Frederick. A Bibliography on Africa, 1940-2005
Bibliography accompanying Cooper's Africa Since 1940: The Past of the Present (New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
From the Roots Institute at the University of Virginia.


Mitchell, Brian R. International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania, 1750-1993. New York, Stockton Press, 1998.
Dana Call Number: Ref. HA4675 .M552 1998

Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures. New York, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2008.

Finding Books: Library Catalogs

The online catalog for the Rutgers University Libraries. IRIS is not a restricted database, anyone can access it from anywhere. However if you're coming in from off-campus and trying to connect to electronic journals or e-reserves from within IRIS you will need to be logged in. So you might find it less frustrating to use the off-campus version.

To find books that focus on globalization issues in Africa, search IRIS using SUBJECT begins with

Newark Law
Camden Law
Rutgers Law library materials are not listed in IRIS. So if your project is in some way law-related, be sure and use the Law library catalogs.

Center for Research Libraries
CRL is consortium of North American university and independent research libraries that acquires and preserves newspapers, journals, documents, foreign dissertations, archives, and other expensive or hard to find materials. As Rutgers is a CRL member, these materials are considered part of Rutgers' collections and can be borrowed via Interlibrary Loan. In addition to the materials listed in their catalog, CRL also supports and provides access to special collections such as the Cooperative Africana Microform Project (CAMP), International Disserations, and Global Newspapers

Among the CAMP collections available from CRL are

New Zealand Digital Library: Humanitarian and UN Collections
Collections include:

Finding Articles plus: Indexes

This is a selected list of databases that you may find useful. There are many other indexes that may focus more specifically on the particular topic that you are researching. Check out the complete list of Rutgers online indexes and databases.

Google Scholar
Use the Google search engine to search specifically for scholarly literature including books, peer-reviewed articles, theses, preprints, and technical reports. Links to the full-text of articles from open access (available without a subscription) journals and preprint repositories.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access


Historical Abstracts
1955- . The most comprehensive index to world history (excluding that of the U.S. and Canada) from 1450 to the present. Indexes over 2,000 history and history-related journals worldwide, as well as book reviews and dissertations.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Economics and Business

1969- . Index to over 750 economic journals worldwide as well as books, dissertations, conference proceedings, and working papers.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Business Source Premier
Index to thousands of scholarly and professional publications, academic journals, and trade magazines. A large percentage of the articles are available full-text. Profiles of the world's largest 10,000 companies also available. Most publications indexed back to 1980s or 1990s; individual titles may begin coverage much earlier. Harvard Business Review available in full-text beginning with 10/01/1922.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

African Studies

Africa-Wide: NiPad
Search across 30 databases providing access to multi-disciplinary information on Africa. Indexes books, journals, newspapers, government publications, and popular magazines.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Bibliography of Africana Periodical Literature Database
Index to over 108,000 articles from 521 journals that specialize in African Studies or consistently cover the African continent. Journals indexed in their entirety.

Political Science, Public Policy, and International Affairs

CIAO: Columbia International Affairs Online
1991- Database of full-text working papers, research reports, conference proceedings, policy briefs, and journal articles relating to international affairs.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Eldis: The Gateway to Development Information
Database of over 26,000 selected full-text articles, working papers, reports, and other publications relating to development policy, practice and research. Search or browse by topic or country. Coverage includes Africa, the Middle East, East Asia & the Pacific, South Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Also offers over 30 subject-focused guides (e.g., Corporate Social Responsibility, Finance Policy, Globalisation) to key documents, organizations, research themes, discussions, and other key resources.

Worldwide Political Science Abstracts
1975- Index to over 1,300 journals in political science, international relations, public policy and related fields.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Public Affairs Information Service
1915- Index to books, reports, government documents, and journals dealing with political, social, and public policy issues.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Reporting the News

For links to many newspaper sites with online searchable archives, as well as to physical collections of newspapers see the Newspapers Research Guide.

Historical New York Times
Allows you to search and display the full image of articles published in the New York Times back to 1851. The two+ most recent years are not included, use Access World News.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access.

Access World News
Access to the full text of over 600 U.S. and over 700 international newspapers.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

World News Connection
Translated and English-language news and information from Central Eurasia, China, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, East Europe, West Europe, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access.

News Portal
Posts over 1000 stories daily in English and French. Searchable archive of over 900,000 articles--includes the archive of Africa News Service dating from 1997.

Union Lists

Union lists identify where runs of specific newspapers are physically held; newspapers on microform may be requested on Interlibrary Loan.

African Newspapers Union List (AFRINUL)
Database of holdings information for newspapers (current and retrospective) published in sub-Saharan Africa. Holdings currently only reflect North American collections. Project administered by the Center for Research Libraries.

Newspapers in Microform. Foreign Countries. Washington : Library of Congress, 2 vols.
Lists newspapers by country, city, and title. Indicates which libraries have microform holdings of those titles.
Dana Call Number: Ref. Z6945.U515a yr.1948/83

Foreign Newspapers at the Center for Research Libraries
Database of more than 6000 titles of non-U.S. newspapers (current and restrospective) held by CRL.

Foreign Newspapers at the Library of Congress
Newspapers currently received and permanently retained on microfilm.

Institutions and Ideas

Philosopher's Index
1940- Index to over 480 journals worldwide, as well as books, relating to social and political philosophy and concepts, the philosophy of law, the philosophy of religion, etc.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Scholarly encyclopedias can give you an overview of a topic as well as some basic bibliography

Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas
Digital, searchable version of the classic 5-volume set published in 1973-74 [Dana Ref. CB5 .D52]. A basic resource for tracing the development of major concepts (e.g., Class; Democracy; The State) in history. Lengthy, signed scholarly essays with bibliography.

New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 6 vols.
Over 700 signed articles with up to date bibliographies. While the Dictionary of the History of Ideas was decidedly Eurocentric in its approach, articles in the NDHI are written from a global, multicultural perspective. Emphasize is on developments in scholarship since 1970.

International Governmental Organizations

International Governmental Organizations
Alphabetical list of IGOs with links to their primary web sites. From the Library at Northwestern University.

The United Nations

UNBISnet: United Nations Bibliographic Information System
UN and other documents and publications indexed by the UN Dag Hammarskjold Library in New York and the UN Library in Geneva. Full coverage from 1979 but many older titles continue to be added. Many links to full-text documents. You can also search voting records for all resolutions adopted by the General Assembly (1983- ) and the Security Council (1946- ), and for speeches (1983- ) made in the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the Trusteeship Council.

Database indexing UN documents (General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice) and publications back to 1946, with links to some full text documents. Also indexes articles in UN periodicals.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Official Document System of the United Nations
1993- Index to the full text of UN parliamentary documents (resolutions and decisions from the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, and their subsidiary bodies). Also includes documents from global conference convened by the UN. Official resolutions and decisions back to 1946 are in the "Resolutions" database, available from the "Advanced Search" screen.

UN Wire
Archive as well daily email briefing (free) of news about the UN and about international affairs.

The Evolution of the United Nations Since 1995.
NATO Library Thematic Bibliographies No.7/2003.


Colonial Africa

Africa South of the Sahara: The Colonial Period
Very nice collection of annotated scholarly links relating to African colonial history. Compiled by Karen Fund, Stanford University. Part of her excellent African History on the Internet site.


The History of Colonial Africa: Selected Bibliography
Compiled by George P. Landow (Brown Unversity). Part of the African Postcolonial Literature in English site.

Colonial Nigeria: Selected Bibliography
Short bibliography from the African Postcolonial Literature in English site.

For published bibliographies relating to specific African countries or regions, do a subject keyword search in IRIS, the Rutgers online catalog. For example:


Cooper, Frederick. "Conflict and Connection: Rethinking Colonial African History," The American Historical Review 99(5), December 1994, 1516-1545.
"The earliest attempts by African intellectuals to confront the issues of colonialism and racism, beginning in the nineteenth century, entailed contacts forged with Americans of African descent and later with anticolonial leaders from Asia and the Carbibbean. Later still, the limitations of anticolonial ideologies and of nationalism were analyzed in Africa with the help of arguments originating with Latin American dependency theorists."
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

For a more extensive collection of resources see the History of Colonial Africa guide.

Trade Patterns Past & Present

Curtin, Philip D. Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Dana Call Number: HF352 .C87 1984

Old World Trade Routes (OWTRAD) Project
Includes an archive of "geo/chrono-referenced data on land, river and maritime trade routes of Eurasia and Africa during the period 10,000 BCE - circa 1820 CE." Includes data sets for Historical transport/travel/communication routes and nodes - Africa.

Vansina, J. "Long-Distance Trade-Routes in Central Africa," The Journal of African History 3(3), 1962, 375-390.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Broadman, Harry G. Africa's Silk Road: China and India's New Economic Frontier. Washington, DC, The World Bank, 2006.
Analysis of Africa's relationships with China and India and the implications for Africa's economic future.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Factors Affecting Trade Patterns of Selected Industries. Washington, DC, U.S. International Trade Commission, April 2007.


Migration Bibliography
Extensive bibliography on migration issues in Southern Africa. From the Southern African Migration Project (SAMP).

Curtin, Philip D. "Africa and Global Patterns of Migration," IN Global History and Migrations. Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1997, pp. 63-94.
Alexander Call Number: D445 .G55 1996

African Migrations. Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Dynamics
Special issue (Nr. 8/2005) of Stichproben. Wiener Zeitschrfit fur kiritische Afrikastudien

Global Africa

Ouattara, Alassane D. The Challenges of Globalization for Africa
Address delivered at the Southern Africa Economic Summit in Harare, May 21, 1997.

Akindele, S.T., T.O. Gidado, and O.R. Olaopo. "Globalisation, Its Implications and Consequences for Africa," Globalization 2(1), Winter 2002.
"Examines the concept of globalisation, its history, instruments and problems for the African continent...The central thesis of our study is that the asymmetry of power and interests of the member states of the global village, as well as the lopsidedness in the rules of the game there-in, cannot benefit Africa and her people."

EU Strategy for Africa
In December of 2005 the Council of the European Union adopted The EU and Africa: Towards a Strategic Partnership, that focused on "key requirements for sustainable development such as peace and security, good and effective governance, trade, interconnectivity, social cohesion and envrionmental sustainability."

Our Common Interest: Report of the Commission for Africa. March, 2006.

The Globalization Research Center - Africa
"The UCLA Globalization Research Center-Africa (GRCA) conducts research on the dynamics and effects of globalization, with particular emphasis on impacts within Africa. The overall aim of the Center is to engage in research on ways global forces impact upon African societies; the ways in which African societies have an impact upon the globalization process; and the comparative, cross-national and cross cultural comparison of global processes as they relate to Africa." Includes links to news reports as well as full-text working papers, policy briefs, books, and photo essays.

Countries and Cultures

Country Studies
Online versions of the Country Studies/Area Handbooks series published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. A basic resource for an overview of a particular country. Note: The Handbooks found here are electronic versions of studies published between 1988 and 1998, when Congress withdrew funding for this program. Funding was restored for 2004 and work continues on several new editions as well as updated Country Profiles. However, no funding was allocated in 2005 or 2006.

Includes reports on 191 countries worldwide with up-to-date political, economic, cultural, business, and environmental information, as well as current and archived country-specific news.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Portals to the World
The Library of Congress's excellent collection of selected links to in-depth information about the nations and areas of the world. Arranged by country or area, then by categories such as "Business, Commerce, and Economy;" "Government, Politics, and Law;" "Science and Technology;" "Society," etc.

Levinson, David, ed. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 10 vols. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991-1996.
Each volume is devoted to a geographic area and includes a cultural map for that area. There is an entry for each cultural group including information on location, linguistic affiliation, history and cultural relations, settlements, economy, kinship, marriage and family, sociopolitical organization, religion and expressive culture, as well as a list of publications about both the traditional and current culture.
Dana Call Number: Ref. GN550 .E53 1991.


United Nations Common Database (UNCDB)
Index to data elements from more than 400 UN statistical series. Includes data on international trade, national accounts, energy, industry, environment, and transport, as well as demographic and social statistics. Data can be output in comma-delimited (.csv), Excel spreadsheet (.xls), or HTML formats.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access


ICPSR Data Access & Analysis
Rutgers is a member of the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, a hugh social sciences data archive hosted at the University of Michigan. Rutgers users can download ICPSR data sets and use them to generate charts, graphs, or other statistical reports.
Off-Campus Access Note: If you're a Rutgers user connecting from off-campus you must use the off-campus link if you're plannig on downloading data.

Individual Countries

Statistic Algeria: National Office of Statistics

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Federal Republic of Nigeria. National Bureau of Statistics

National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda

Statistics on Senegal

Statistics on Somalia

South African Data Archive

Zimbabwe Data & Statistics

Globalization Resources

Scott, Frances. Global Governance: The Role of States and International Organizations. Special Bibliography Series no. 102. Colorado, U.S. Air Force Academy, 2003.

"Measuring Globalization: Economic Reversals, Forward Momentum," Foreign Policy March/April 2004, Issue 141, 54-69.
The fourth annual A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Globalization Index. Ranks 62 countries in terms of economic integration, technological connectivity, personal contact and political engagement.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Globalization Website
Summaries of major debates and theories regarding globalization, information on some of the major figures associated with the debate (the 'global actors'), explanation of issues with links to articles and position papers, links to relevant organizations, data sources, and globalization megasites. Excellent resource developed by members of the Sociology Department, Emory University.

Policy briefs, working papers, and speeches from the Institute for International Economics, a "private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy."

International Forum on Globalization
The goal of the IFG is to "(1) Expose the multiple effects of economic globalization in order to stimulate debate, and (2) Seek to reverse the globalization process by encouraging ideas and activities which revitalize local economies and communities, and ensure long term ecological stability." Includes links to anti-globalization news stories and analyses.

Atlases and Maps



Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P. The New Atlas of African History. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Dana Call Number: Ref. G2446 .S1F73 1991

Historical Atlas of Africa. J.F. Ade Ajayi and Michael Crowder, general editors. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Dana Call Number: Ref. G2446 .S1H5 1985

Historical Maps of Africa
Part of the extensive Perry-Castañeda Library (University of Texas at Austin) Map Collection.

Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century
Compiled by Matthew White. Includes: a map of Africa in the Early Twentieth Century, as well as a series of smaller maps documenting social and political changes during the 20th century.

Web Atlas of Regional Integration in West Africa
Ongoing project of the Sahel and West Africa Club (SWAC) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). . Sections on transport, telecommunications, ecology, cotton, migration, languages, Africa-China, and gas and oil available.


  • Africa
  • African National Independence
  • Languages of Africa
  • Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa
  • Africa's Mineral Resources
  • Oil Routes 2005
  • Algeria

  • Algeria: Economic Activity 1971
  • Algeria: Population 1971

    Democratic Republic of the Congo [Congo Free State; Belgian Congo; Zaire]

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo 2004
  • Zaire: Minerals and Industry 1979
  • Democratic Republic of Congo's Mineral Resources 2006
  • Zaire: Population 1979
  • Zaire: Agriculture 1979
  • Zaire: Vegetation 1979
  • Nigeria

  • Nigeria: Population 1978
  • Nigeria: Economic Activity 1979
  • Nigeria: Vegetation 1979
  • Nigeria: Gas and Oil 1979
  • Rwanda [German East Africa (pt.); Ruanda-Urundi (pt.); Belgian Congo (pt.)]

  • German East Africa 1905-1914
  • La Colonie belge du Congo 1914
  • Rwanda
  • Rwanda
  • Political Map of Rwanda
  • Rwanda: Incidence of Poverty 1985
  • Satellite Maps of Rwanda Before and After the 1994 Genocide
  • Carte Touristique du Rwanda
  • Senegal [Mali Federation (pt.); Senegambia (pt.)]

  • Senegal
  • Senegal
  • Senegal and Gambia: Economic Activity 1972
  • Senegal and Gambia: Population and Ethnic Groups 1972
  • Senegal and Gambia: Vegetation 1972
  • South Africa

  • South Africa: Industry and Mining 1979
  • South Africa: Population and Racial Composition
  • South Africa: Racial Concentrations and Homelands
  • South Africa: Agriculture 1979
  • South Africa: Vegetation 1979
  • Somalia [British Somaliland (pt.); Italian Somaliland]

  • Somalia
  • Somalia Administrative Map
  • Somalia: Agricultural Land Use and Natural Resources 2002
  • Somali Ethnic Groups 1992
  • Somalia: Population 2002
  • Piracy and Armed Robbery: Attacks off Somalia 2005
  • Reported Incidents of Pirate Attacks & Hijackings off the Coast of Somalia, Jan.2005-March 2006
  • Zimbabwe [Southern Rhodesia; Republic of Rhodesia; Zimbabwe Rhodesia]

  • South Rhodesia: Land Apportionment
  • South Rhodesia: Vegetation 1979

  • Corrections?
    Natalie Borisovets (
    John Cotton Dana Library
    October 15, 2007
    rev. March 5, 2009