Rutgers University Libraries Race and Ethnicity

The Basics

Rutgers-restricted Access

Many of the resources listed in the sections below are marked Rutgers-restricted Access. You should have no problem connecting to these from any networked computer on campus. However, in order to use these resources from off-campus, you must log in with your Rutgers NetID. For instructions see the Libraries' Remote Access to Library Resources.

Off-Campus Access

When working from home or some other off-campus locations, you can use the "Off-Campus Link" provided for each Rutgers-restricted resource below to login with your Rutgers NetID and connect to that database or article. Use the link embedded in the citation to access these resources on campus.

IRIS: Find Books

IRIS is the online catalog for all the Rutgers University Libraries except the Newark and Camden Law Libraries. Many of the sections below include suggestions for searching IRIS to locate other books on the topic(s) covered in that section. Show Me How

Getting Books From Other Rutgers Libraries

If a book that you need is not available (not owned/checked out) at the Dana Library, but is available from another Rutgers Library, you can request delivery of that book to Dana by bringing up the record for the book in IRIS and clicking on tbe Book Delivery/Recall button. Show Me

Book Not Available/Not Owned by the Rutgers Libraries?

The fastest way to get a copy of a book that is not owned or not available (checked out/on Reserve/missing etc.) at the Rutgers Libraries is to request it through E-Z Borrow. E-Z Borrow books are normally received within about five working days. Tell Me More

If a book is not owned by the Rutgers Libraries and is not available via E-Z Borrow, you can place an Interlibrary Loan request. Tell Me More

Becoming an 'Expert' User

Want to maximize your use of Library resources? Check out Searchpath, the Libraries' interactive tutorial.

Citing Your Sources

You most likely will be using ASA (American Sociological Association) style when citing the sources you used for your research paper. The Coates Library at Trinity University has an online guide to ASA Style Citations that will give you the basic information you need to create ASA citations and reference lists.

You can also import references from IRIS and many of the electronic databases into RefWorks, a web-based bibliography and database manager. RefWorks will build your bibliography for you based on whatever style sheet you specify (MLA, Chicago, etc.). For information on setting up your (free) RefWorks account see the RefWorks FAQ.

Not sure when you need to cite something? Check out the Plagiarism Guide

Remember that plagerism is a violation of the Rutgers University Policy on Academic Integrity for Undergraduate and Graduate Students and could result in your dismissal from the University!

Basic Resources

Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Scholarly encyclopedias can give you an overview of a topic as well as some basic bibliography.

Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology
Malden, MA., Blackwell, 2007. 11 vols.
Signed entries with references and suggested readings on "Race," "Discrimination," "Ethnicity," "Eugenics," "Health and Race," "Race and Crime," "Race and the Criminal Justice System," "Race and Ethnic Politics," "Race and Schools," "Racial Hierarchy," "Racism," "Racist Movements," "Scientific Racism," and other related topics.
Dana Call Number: Ref. HM425 .B53 2007
Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society
Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage Publications, 2008.
Over 600 signed entries on racial and ethnic groups and issues relating to race and ethnicity.
Off-Campus Link
Encyclopedia of Racism in the United States
Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 2005. 3 vols.
Some 450 scholarly entries dealing with concepts, theories, people, events, legislation, court cases, and specific racial and ethnic groups. Includes an appendix of primary documents: slave codes, legal documents, speeches, and texts.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E184 .A1E773
The Color of Words: An Encyclopedia Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States
Philip H. Herbst. Yarmouth, Me., Intercultural Press, 1997.
Herbst, an anthropologist, offers definitions, as well as the social and historical origins, of 850 frequently misunderstood, offensive, or politically-charged ethnic and racial terms used in the U.S.
Dana Call Number: REF E184 .A1H466 1997


Bibliographies are great for finding out what has been written/is available on a specific topic.

World Racism and Related Inhumanities: A Country-by-Country Bibliography
Meyer Weinberg. New York, Greenwood Press, 1992.
Some 12,000 references to books, book chapters, articles, dissertations and reports relating to racism and "inhumanities" (antisemitism, colonialism, sexism, and slavery) in 135 countries from ancient times to the late 20th century.
Dana Call Number: REF. HT1521 .W45 1992
Race and Ethnic Relations in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Historical Dictionary and Bibliography
Robert M. Levine. Metuchen, Scarecrow Press, 1980.
Dana Call Number: REF. F1419 .A1L48

Finding Books: Library Catalogs

The online catalog for the Rutgers University Libraries. IRIS is not a restricted database, anyone can access it from anywhere. However if you're coming in from off-campus and trying to connect to electronic journals or e-reserves from within IRIS you will need to be logged in. So you might find it less frustrating to use the off-campus version.
Newark Law
Camden Law
Rutgers Law library materials are not listed in IRIS. So if your topic is in some way law-related, be sure and use the Law library catalogs.
Catalog of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
Catalog of the New York Public research library "devoted to collecting, preserving and providing access to resources documenting the experiences of peoples of African descent throughout the world." The Schomburg Center contains over 5,000,000 items held in five divisions: Art and Artifacts Division, General Research and Reference Division, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, Moving Image and Recorded Sound Division, and Photographs and Prints Division. [Note: When beginning a search session, select "Schomburg Center" from the pull-down menu on the right.] The Schomburg is in the process of making many of its resources available in the NYPL Digital Gallery.

Finding Scholarly Articles

This is a selected list of databases that you may find useful. There are many other indexes that may focus more specifically on the particular topic that you are researching. Check out the complete list of Rutgers online indexes and databases.

If your focus is on politics and public policy you can also try:

If your focus is historical you can try:

If you're focusing on issues relating to communication and mass media you can try:

If you're focusing on issues relating to Latinos you can try:

Can't resist the urge to Google?

Keeping Up With the News

Today's News

Many newspapers allow you to register and receive free access to at least a portion of that day's published articles.

The New York Times
The Washington Post
The Star-Ledger

All the News

Access World News
Access to the full text of over 600 U.S. and over 700 international newspapers. Includes access to the Newark Star-Ledger back to 1996.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access

Looking Back

Historical New York Times
Allows you to search and display the full image of articles published in the New York Times back to 1851. The two+ most recent years are not included, use Access World News.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access.

Constructing Race

Ann Morning. Contexts 4 (4), Fall 2005, pp.44-46
Overview of definitions, usage, and sociological approach.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access
Racial Theories
Michael Baton. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Dana Call Number: HT1521 .B345 1987
"The Conceptual Politics of Race: Lessons From Our Children"
Lawrence Hirschfeld. Ethos 25(1), March 1997, pp. 63-92.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access
"Social Construction and the Concept of Race"
Edouard Machery and Luc Faucher. Philosophy of Science, December 2005, pp. 1208-1219.
Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement.
Kimberle Crenshaw New York, New Press, 1995
Critical race theory looks at judicial conclusions as resulting from the social construction of race.
Dana Call Number: KF4755 .A75C7 1995.
"Black Belts and Ivory Towers: The Place of Race in U.S. Social Thought, 1892-1948"
Davarian L. Baldwin. Critical Sociology 30(2), 2004, pp.397-450
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access
Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s.
Michael Omi and Howard Winant. 2d edition. New York, Routledge, 1994.
Dana Call Number: E184 .A1047 1994

Immigrants and Ethnic Groups

Basic Resources

Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930
Online collection of approximately 1,800 books and pamphlets as well as 9,000 photographs, 200 maps and 13,000 pages from Harvard manuscript and archival collections. Emphasis on 19th century materials. An amazing resource!
Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups
Edited by Stephan Thernstrom. Cambridge, Mass., Belnap Press, 1980.
"A guide to the history, culture, and distinctive characteristics of the more than 100 ethnic groups who live in the United States."
Dana Call Number: REF E184 .A1H35
Encyclopedia of American Immigration
James Ciment, Immanuel Ness, editors. Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe, 2000. 4 vols.
Immigration history; immigration issues (causes, demographics, acculturation, laws and legislation, politics, economics, etc.); and immigration documents (laws, treaties, court cases, reports, etc.).Volumes 3 and 4 contain articles on specific immigrant groups in America.
Dana Call Number: REF JV6465 .E53 2000
New Americans: A Guide to Immigration Since 1965
Edited by Mary C. Waters and Reed Ueda. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Universtiy Press, 2007.
Account of changes in American demographics since the major changes in immigation law after 1965, including the new waves of immigratns from non-European countries. Chapters on immigration law and policy, refugees, unauthorized migrants, racial and ethnic identity, assimilation, nationalization, economy, politics, religion, education, family relations, and immigration from specific countries and areas.
Dana Call Number: JV6455 .N49 2007 [REF and STACKS]


American Ethnic Geography: A Selected Bibliography of the Ethnic and Cultural Geography of the United States and Canada
Kilpinen, Jan T.
Immigration Issues: A Bibliography
Topical list of books and government documents dealing with American immigration issues.

Ethnic Newspapers

Ethnic newspapers are a valuable source of information on the lives and concerns of immigrant and ethnic groups. You can search for ethnic newspapers held by the Rutgers Libraries in IRIS, our online catalog. As your search terms, use the name of the group in which you are interested followed by the word "newspapers;" search this as a SUBJECT Keyword.

Ethnic NewsWatch
A full-text collection of over 200 newspapers, magazines, and journals of the ethnic (including Arab and Middle Eastern, Asian-American, European, and Jewish), minority, and native press. Complete articles dating back to 1960, in English and Spanish.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access
U.S. Ethnic Press
Newspapers and periodicals published by various North American ethnic groups and held by the Center for Research Libraries (Chicago). These are available to Rutgers users via Interlibrary Loan. Searchable by ethnic group.

The New Jersey Information Center in the Newark Public Library has a large collection of New Jersey Newspapers on Microfilm which includes a number of ethnic New Jersey newspapers.

Legislating Immigration

Eugenic Laws Restricting Immigration
Virtual exhibit with accompanying essay by Paul Lombardo. From the Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement

Executive Summary: U.S. Immigration: A Legislative History
"Highlights the history of U.S. immigration legislation and the parallel rise and fall in numbers and changing ethnic makeup." From the Population Resource Center.

2007 Enacted State Legislation Related to Immigrants and Immigration. August 6, 2006
"As of July 2, 2007, no fewer than 1404 pieces of legislation related to immigrants and immigration had been introduced among the 50 state legislatures. From January to July 2nd 2007, 170 bills became law in 41 states." From the National Conference of State Legislatures.

Ethnic Groups

For resources relating to specific ethnic groups, see the "Immigrant Groups" section of the American Immigration History guide.

Race in Popular Culture


Projecting Ethnicity and Race: An Annotated Bibliography of Studies on Imagery in American Film
Marsha J. Hamilton and Eleanor S. Block. Westport, Conn., Praeger Publishers, 2003.
Dana Call Number: PN1995.9 .M56.H36 2003
African Americans in the Movies: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library
Partially annotated bibliography of books and articles.
Arabs in Film and Television: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library
Annotated bibliography.
Chicanos/Latinos in the Movies: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library
Partially annotated bibliography of books and articles.


The Movies, Race, and Ethnicity: African Americans
Annotated filmography from the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley. For some films includes selected reviews and articles.
The Movies, Race, and Ethnicity: Images of Arabs and the Middle East
Annotated filmography from the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley. For some films includes selected reviews and articles.
The Hispanic Image on the Silver Screen: An Interpretive Filmography From Silents into Sound, 1898-1935
Alfred Charles Richard. New York, Greenwood Press, 1992.
Rutgers Call Number: ALEX, ROBESON PN1998 .R54 1992
Censorship and Hollywood's Hispanic Image: An Interpretive Filmography, 1936-1955
Alfred Charles Richard. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1993.
Rutgers Call Number: ALEX PN1995.9 .L37453 1993
Contemporary Hollywood's Negative Hispanic Image: An Interpretive Filmography, 1956-1993
Alfred Charles Richard. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1994.
Rutgers Call Number: ALEX, ROBESON, PN1995.9 .L37R54 1994; KILMER REF PN1995.9 .L37R54 1994

Finding Other Books and Articles

MLA International Bibliography
1926- . The most comprehensive index to journal articles, books, dissertations, and other materials relating to literature, folkore, and film studes. Indexes more than 4400 journals.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access
Film Literature Index
Index to scholarly and popular film and television periodicals worldwide from 1976 to 2001. Search or browse citations.

Finding Films

Want to know if the Rutgers Libraries own a particular film?

Select Advanced Search in IRIS, the Libraries' online catalog. Enter the title into the "TITLE" search box, and select Visual Materials from the format pull-down menu.
Videos/DVDs owned by the Dana Library are available for viewing in the Media Center on the 4th floor of Dana Library.
Videos that are only available from the Media Center in New Brunswick must be booked BY FACULTY for class viewing. All other users must view materials on-site at the Media Center on the Livingston Campus. Advance reservations for viewing rooms are recommended. Undergraduate students may make reservations no earlier than 24 hours in advance. To make a reservation, call 445-4980 (x155).

Race and...


Minter, Thomas K. and Alfred E Prettyman. "Education," Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. New York, Macmillan, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 846-876.
Overview of the history of African-American education from slavery thru current issues involving school choice. Includes a lengthy bibliography.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E185 .E54 1996.

Status and Trends in the Education of Blacks. Washington, DC, National Center for Education Statistics, September 2003.
Report examining "the mix of progress on key education indicators of Black children and adults in the United States." Covers preprimary through postsecondary education. Includes labor markets and social outcomes of education.

Status and Treands in the Education of Hispanics. Washington, DC, National Center for Education Statistics, April 2003.
Report examining the current condition and recent trends in the educational status of Hispanics in the United States. Covers preprimary through postsecondary education. Includes labor markets and social outcomes of education.

Thomas, Wayne P. and Collier, Virginia P. A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence, 2001.
Results of a five-year study of five urban and rural research sites, looking at the long-term academic achievement of all minority language students in those districts.

Flicker, Douglas J. "From Roberts to Plessy: Educational Segregation and the 'Separate But Equal' Doctrine," The Journal of Negro History 84(4), Autumn 1999, 301-314.
Traces the history of legalized educational segregation. Restricted Access.

Brown vs. the Board of Education

Brown vs. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)
Supreme Court Opinion. From Findlaw.

Brown vs. Board of Education
Overview, 'myths versus truths,' virtual exhibit, and research sources. From the Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research.

Orfield, Gary and Chungmei Lee. Brown at 50: King's Dream or Plessy's Nightmare?. Cambridge, Mass., The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, January 2004.
Examines the decade of resegregation that began with the Supreme Court's 1991 Dowell decision, which authorized a return to neighborhood schools even if that would result in segregated schools.

To find other materials on Brown v. The Board of Education in IRIS, use the Subject heading: Brown, Oliver, 1918 Trials, Litigation, etc.

Educational Data

Digest of Education Statistics
Compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of education from prekindergarten through graduate school. Include: the number of schools and colleges; teachers; enrollments; graduates; educational attainment; finances; federal funds for education; employment and income of graduates; etc.

Brown v. Board of Education: 50th Anniversary Data assembled by the U.S. Census Bureau on the educational attainment and school enrollment of blacks in the early 1950s vs. 2002.

Black/White School Segregation, 2000
U.S. map showing the probability that a black student has white classmates.


Racial Residential Segregation Measurement Project
"This website provides you with indexes of racial residential segregation for all states, for all counties, for all metropolitan areas and for all cities of 100,000 or more using information from the Census of 2000." A Project of the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan.

Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United States: 1980-2000. 2002
U.S. Census Bureau, Series CENSR-3.

Living Cities: The National Community Development Initiative Databooks.
Demographic and economic data and analysis pertaining to population, race and ethnicity, immigration, age, households and families, education, work, commuting, income and poverty, and housing for the 23 cities in the "Living Cities" group. Looks at each city in the context of the group as well as within the largest 100 cities in the nation.

The Criminal Justice System

Correctional Populations in the United States - Statistical Tables
Counts of federal and state prisoners, probationers, and parolees, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, admission type, release type, and sentence length, as well as characterisitcs of prisoners under the sentence of death. Summary data on occupation and capacity of correctional facilities. Report of military corrections. Annual, data from 1998 forward only available in electronic format. [1985-1997: DANA DOCUS J 29.17:]

Langen, Patrick A. Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1991.
Dana Call Number: Ref. HV 9465 .L36 1991

Probation and Parole in the United States
Number of persons on probation and parole, by State, at year-end. Race, gender, and Hispanic makeup of these populations, percentages of parolees and probationers completing community supervision successfully, or failing because of a rule violation or a new offense. Data based on the Annual Probation and Annual Parole surveys. Annual report, 1994- .

Tonry, Michael. Malign Neglect--Race, Crime, and Punishment in America. New York, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Dana Call Number: HV9950 .T66 1995

Clear, Todd R. Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse. New York, Oxford University Press, 2007.
Dana Call Number: HV9950 .C55 2007

Racial Profiling

Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the United States. New York, Anmesty International, 2004.

Racial Profile Data Collection Resource Center
Racial profiling data, information on legislation and litigation, news and reports. Northeastern University.

Weitzer, Ronald and Tuch, Steven A. "Perceptions of Racial Profiling: Race, Class, and Personal Experience," Criminology 40(2), May 2002, pp.435-456.

Harris, David A. Driving While Black: Racial Profiling On Our Nation's Highways. American Civil Liberties Union Special Report. June 1999.


Kansal, Tushar. Racial Disparity in Sentencing: A Review of the Literature. Washington, D.C., The Sentencing Project, 2005.
"A review of major research on race issues over the past 20 years."

Blackmore, Edward. The Effect of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing on Black Males and Black Communities: Annotated Bibliography. 1998.

The Media

Access World News
Access to the full text of over 600 U.S. and over 700 international newspapers. Includes access to the Newark Star-Ledger back to 1996.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access

Littlefield, Marci Bounds. "The Media as a System of Racialization: Exploring Images of African American Women and the New Racism," American Behavioral Scientist 51(5), 2008, 675-685.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access

Spratt, Margaret et. al. "News, Race, and the Status Quo: The Case of Emmett Louis Till," Howard Journal of Communication 18(2), 2007, 169-192.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access

Split Vision: The Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media
Edited by Edmund Ghareeb. Revised and Expanded edition. Washington, D.C., American-Arab Affairs Council, 1983.
Dana Call Number: DS63.2 .U5S64 1983

A Bibliography of Material on Islam, Muslims and the Media

Finding Data

The Importance of Collecting Data and Doing Social Scientific Research on Race. 2003
Statement of the American Sociological Association.

Statistical Abstract of the United States
The basic annual U.S. statistical compilation.

Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin. September 1998.
"This chart book documents current differences in well-being by race and Hispanic origin and describes how such differences have evolved over the past several decades."

Current Population Reports: Special Studies, P-23
From the U.S. Census Bureau. Includes occasional reports on special populations including foreign-born populations, minorities, and women. Full-text beginning with no. 188; earlier and paper copies may be found in Dana's Government Documents/Census section.

Race Data: The Black Population in the United States
Links to a variety of U.S. Census Bureau reports.

Race Data: Asian and Pacific Islander Populations
Links to a variety of U.S. Census Bureau reports.

US Immigration: Migration Facts, Stats, and Maps
Part of the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) Data Hub.

Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990
22 Detailed tables.

Racial and Ethnic Classifications Used in Census 2000 and Beyond

LexisNexis Statistical

LexisNexis Statistical
Index to statistics published by the U.S. government (1973- ), by international intergovernmental organizations (1983- ), by professional and trade organizations, by U.S. state government agencies, by independent research organizations, and by universities and research centers (1980- ).
Off-Campus Link Rutgers-restricted Access

Natalie Borisovets (
John Cotton Dana Library
July 14, 2009