Rutgers University Libraries History of Social Welfare Policies & Programs

The Basics

This guide focuses on resources that you can use when seeking information on the history of social welfare policies and programs in the U.S. up to the 1930s. For resources relating to policies and issues since the 1930s see the Contemporary Social Welfare Policies guide.

Restricted Access

Many of the resources listed in the sections below are marked Restricted Access. You should have no problem connecting to these from any networked computer on campus. However, in order to use these from off-campus you must log in with your Rutgers NetID. For instructions see the Libraries' Remote Access to Library Resources.

Off-Campus Links

If you are not on-campus, use these links to connect to Rutgers' library resources. If you haven't already logged in with your NetID [your pegasus username and password] these links will take you to the login page.

IRIS: Find Books

IRIS is the online catalog for all the Rutgers University Libraries except the Newark and Camden Law Libraries. Many of the sections below include suggestions for searching IRIS to locate other books on the topic(s) covered in that section. Show Me How

Getting Books From Other Rutgers Libraries

If a book that you need is not available (not owned/checked out) at the Dana Library, but is available from another Rutgers Library, you can request delivery of that book to Dana by bringing up the record for the book in IRIS and clicking on tbe Book Delivery/Recall button. Show Me

Book Not Available/Not Owned by the Rutgers Libraries?

The fastest way to get a copy of a book that is not owned or not available (checked out/on Reserve/missing etc.) at the Rutgers Libraries is to request it through E-Z Borrow. E-Z Borrow books are normally received within about five working days. Tell Me More

If a book is not owned by the Rutgers Libraries and is not available via E-Z Borrow, you can place an Interlibrary Loan request. Tell Me More

Finding Articles plus

Social Sciences Full Text
The basic index for finding articles in the social sciences. Indexes over 550 of the core, English language journals in social science disciplines including sociology and social work, public administration, political science, public welfare, and urban studies. Indexes many journals back to 1982 and, beginning with 1995, includes many full-text articles.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Need More?

While Social Sciences Full Text will usually give you what you need for a basic research paper in the social sciences, if you're working on a more extensive project, or a more specialized topic, you may need a more focused index.

Social Services Abstracts
Index to research relating to social work, human services, and relating areas. Social Services Abstracts indexes over 1300 journals as well as dissertations.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Social Work Abstracts 1977- Abstracts of over 35,000 articles and dissertations in the field of social work. Also includes the NASW Register of Clinical Social Workers, which lists registered social workers, their addresses and phone numbers, education and specialization, type of practice and license information. Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Sociologial Abstracts 1963- Index to approximately 1800 scholarly and professional journals in sociology and related disciplines, as well as to books reviews, books, book chapters, dissertations and conference papers. Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Public Affairs Information Service 1972- Index to books, reports, government documents, and journals dealing with political, social, and public policy issues. Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Worldwide Political Science Abstracts 1975- Index to over 1,300 journals in political science, international relations, public policy and related fields. Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Becoming an 'Expert' User

Want to maximize your use of Library resources? Check out Rutgers RIOT, the Libraries' online tutorial.

Citing Your Sources

You will be using MLA (Modern Language Association) style when citing the sources that you use in your research papers. The MLA Style Manual is available at the Dana Library Reference Desk. The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison also has a nice introduction to MLA Documentation that will give you the basic information you need to create MLA citations and a Works Cited list.

You can also import references from IRIS and many of the electronic databases into RefWorks, a web-based bibliography and database manager. RefWorks will build your bibliography for you based on whatever style sheet you specify (MLA, Chicago, etc.). For information on setting up your (free) RefWorks account see the RefWorks FAQ.

Not sure when you need to cite something? Check out the Plagiarism Guide

Getting Started: Basic Reference Works

Encyclopedia of Social Work. 20th edition. New York, National Association of Social Workers, 2008.
Almost always a good place to begin your research. About 400 lengthy signed articles with bibliographies on topics felt to be of particular relevance of social work, as well as 200 brief biographies of key figures in the history of social work. Many articles include a historical overview.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access

Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America. John M. Herrick and Paul H. Stuart (eds.). Thousand Oakes, California: Sage Publications, 2005.
Another useful source. 180 essays, most signed, on the people, topics, and organizations that were important to the development of social welfare policies, services, and institutions in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Most entries have suggestions for "Further Reading," and many include references to relevant primary source collections as well as to published primary sources.
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access and Dana Call Number: Ref. HV12 .E497 2005

Social Welfare in America: An Annotated Bibliography. Walter I. Trattner and W. Andrew Achenbaum (eds.). Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1983.
Annotated bibliography divided into chapters on: "The process and progress of social welfare;" "Caring for the infant and child;" "Addressing the problems of youth;" 'Relieving the domestic crises of adulthood;" and "Coping with the difficulties of old age." Each chapter includes a breakdown by historical period, as well as references categorized by "Racial/Ethnic;" "Gender-Specific;" and "Class."
Dana Call Number: Ref. HV91 .S6 1983

Social Welfare: Origins and Development

Charles Dickens. Oliver Twist. London, Chapman & Hall, 1897.
First published in 1838.

The Poor Laws
Origins and evolution of the Poor Laws, with links to the full texts of the Acts. Part of Peter Higginbotham's site on The Workhouse.

Quigley, William P. Five Hundred Years of English Poor Laws, 1349-1834: Regulating the Working and Nonworking Poor," Akron Law Review 30(1), Fall 1996, 73-128.
"English poor laws have been a major influence on subsequent social legislation and regulation of the working poor in the United States...This article will review how the working and the nonworking poor were regulated by 500 years of English poor laws. It will conclude with ideas about the principles which have since evolved to regulate the working and nonworking poor." Includes a discussion of the role of the Church--and Biblical precepts--in the development of the poor laws.

The Historical Development of the Social Security Act
By Dr. Abe Bortz, the first historian of the Social Security Administration. Overview of social policy developments from the Elizabethan Poor Laws to the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935.

Social Work History Station
Includes Progress and Reform: A Cyberhistory of Social Work's Formative Years [1860-1940], as well as a picture gallery and links to related sites and resources. Compiled by Dan Huff (Boise State University).

The 20th Century: How They Saw It

Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1890.

On the Lower East Side: Observations of Life in Lower Manhattan at the Turn of the Century
A collection of turn of the century articles and other documentary sources accompanied by introductory materials.

Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York, Doubleday, 1906.
Novel focusing on the Chicago stockyards at the turn of the 20th century and often credited with being the catalyst for the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration and the subsequent meat industry inspection standards. An audio version also available.

Addams, Jane and Lillian D. Wald. Forty Years at Hull-House; being "Twenty Years at Hull-House and "The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House" New York, Macmillan Co., 1935.

Survey Graphic
Survey Graphic began publication in 1921 as a companion to The Survey, the premier social work journal in the 1920s. Written in a stytle that was accessible to the general public, Survey Graphic focused on important social issues such as race, housing, labor, unemployment, education and healthcare, and had considerable influence on public policy.
Dana Library has volumes 16-37, 1929-1948, of Survey Graphic downstairs in the Lower Level (Shelved by Title).

Volumes 22 to 37 (1933-1948) of the Survey Graphic are available online from the Internet Archive.

Selections from Survey Graphic are also available at the following sites:

New Deal Network
Virtual library of over 20,000 photographs, political cartoons, and texts (articles, speeches, letters, and othe documents). Includes a Document Library organized by topic, a New Deal Photo Gallery, selections of the press conferences of the various New Deal Work Relief agencies, and a Labor in the 1930s Bibliography.


To find books on U.S. labor history search IRIS, the Rutgers online catalog. Some relevant subject headings include:

Time Line 1850-1924
Chronology of the trade union movement. From the Samuel Gompers Papers at the University of Maryland.

"Federal Labor Laws"
Article from the Congressional Digest (June-July 1993) briefly describing the major federal labor laws from the Clayton Act (1914) to the Landrum-Griffin Act (1959).

American Labor Sourcebook. Bernard and Susan Rifkin. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1979.
Includes historical information on labor unions, legislation, and court decisions.
Dana Call Number: Ref. HD8072.R53

"Minimum Wage Legislation," IN Growth of Labor Law in the United States. U.S. Department of Labor, 1967, pp.69-97.
Historical development and evolution of federal and state minimum wage legislation.
Dana Call Number: SuDocs L1.2:L41/967

Labor History Bibliography
Reprint of Timothy G. Borden's annotated list (OAH Magazine of History 11 (Winter 1997): 27-30)of "some of the leading works of the literature of American working-class studies."

U.S. Labor and Working Class History Bibliography
Annual bibliography from the Labor and Working Class History Association.

Levitan, Sar A. and Gallo, Frank. "Work and Family: The Impact of Legislation," Monthly Labor Review 113(3), March 1990, 34-40.
"Government policies have both shaped and responded to radical changes in the work experiences of American families...The Government primarily has sought to assist families beset by crises: unemployment, disability or death, old age, and poverty."

Target Populations

Platt, Anthony M. and Cooreman, Jenifer L. " A Multicultural Chronology of Welfare Policy and Social Work in the United States," Social Justice 28(1), Spring 2001, 91-137.
"This chronology is designed to introduce future social workers to significant events, policies, people, and publications in the history of welfare policy and social work in the United States...Issues of race and racism, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality are central to the chronology's perspective." Includes a extensive bibliography.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access

Women and Children


Women's Rights in the United States : A Documentary History / edited by Winston E. Langley and Vivian C. Fox. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1994.
Key primary documents including speeches and letters, congressional testimony, court decisions, government reports, position papers, statutes, and news stories. From the Colonial period through 1993.
Dana Call Number: Ref. HQ1236.5.U6W68 1994

Huls, Mary Ellen. United States Government Documents on Women, 1800-1990 : A Comprehensive Bibliography. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1993. 2 v.
Almost 7,000 entries, many with short annotations, of reports produced by U.S. agencies, commissions, and Congress "on women or on topics directly affecting women's health and welfare" published between 1800 and 1990. Topical arrangement: "Suffrage and Political Participation," "Education," "Violence Against Women," "Female Offenders," "Pay Equity," "The Women's Bureau," etc.
Dana Call Number: Ref HQ1410.H85 1993

Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000
Books, images, essays, and primary documents organized around "document projects" that pose a question relating to the role of women in U.S. social movements.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Bibliography About the U.S. Suffrage Movement
Book list from the Susan B. Anthony Center for Women's Leadership.

Women and Children in the Labor Force

Alexander Hamilton. Report on Manufactures. December 5, 1791.
Excerpt from Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton's report to the House of Representatives on how he thinks industries should operate in the new nation. Section 3 ("As to the additional employment of classes of the community not originally engaged in the particular business") encourages the employment in manufacturing of women and children "who are rendered more useful...than they would otherwise be."

The Triangle Factory Fire
Cornell University Kheel Center's virtual exhibit of photographs, primary documents, and oral histories relating to the 1911 fire in a New York City sweatshop.

"Child Labor Laws," IN Growth of Labor Law in the United States. U.S. Department of Labor, 1967, pp.7-58.
Historical development and evolution of federal and state child labor legislation.
Dana Call Number: SuDocs L1.2:L41/967

Moehling, Carolyn M. "State Child Labor Laws and the Decline of Child Labor," Explorations in Economic History 36(1), 1999, 72-106.
"Between 1880 and 1930, the occupation rate of children age 10 to 15 fell by over 75%. This paper examines whether state laws restricting the employment of child labor contributed to this decline."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

McGill, Nettie. Child Labor in New Jersey: Part 3: The Working Children of Newark and Paterson. Washington, DC, Children's Bureau, 1931
One of a series of studies of child welfare in New Jersey by the Children's Bureau in 1925. According to the 1920 census, 25 percent of Newark's 14 and 15 year-olds were in the work force. Looks at data relating to termination of school life, occupations, wages, unemployment and steadiness at work.

Child Labor Reform Exhibit
From the Wirtz Labor Library at the U.S. Department of Labor.

Stadum, Beverly. "The Dilemma in Saving Children From Child Labor: Reform and Casework at Odds With Families' Needs (1900-1938)," Child Welfare 74(1), January/February 1995, 33-55.
"This article...[examines] the role of social workers in implementing the new reforms and the reactions of parents and children in low-income households who were affected by the legislative changes."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Kleinberg, S.J. " Children's and Mothers' Wage Labor in Three Eastern U.S. Cities, 1880-1920," Social Science History 29(1), 2005, 45-76.
"Explores the variations in children's and mothers' labor...between 1880 and 1920. It finds that child labor and education legislation resulted in a decrease in children's employment and increased the likelihood that mothers would take paid jobs."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.


Brace, Charles Loring. "The Life of the Street Rats," Excerpt from The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty Years Work Among Them. New York, Wynkoop & Hallenbeck, 1872.
Founder of New York City's Children's Aid Society, Brace began the "orphan trains" program that sent thousands of New York area "orphans" to families in the Mid-West.

Cook, Jeanne F. "A History of Placing-Out: The Orphan Trains," Child Welfare 74(1), January/February 1995, 181-197.
"Between 1854 and 1930, the placing-out or orphan train strategy, considered to be the forerunner of modern family foster care, relocated approximately 150,000 children and youths from the city of New York to families in the Midwest."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Adoption History Project
Rich collection of primary and secondary sources relating to the history of adoption in the United States. Includes a timeline, a section on important individuals and organizations, and essays, documents, and suggestions for further reading organized by Topics in Adoption History. Site maintained by Ellen Herman in the Department of History at the University of Oregon.

The Elderly

Thomas Paine. Agrarian Justice. 1797.
Paine advocated the creation of a national fund, financed by a tax on inherited property, that would pay every person 10 Pounds annually once they reached the age of 50.

Williamson, John B. " Old Age Relief Policy Prior to 1900," American Journal of Economics and Sociology 43(3), July 1984, 369-384.
"Between the 17th and the 19th centuries old age relief policy in America became increasingly restrictive."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Gratton, Brian. " The Poverty of Impoverishment Theory: The Economic Well-Being of the Elderly, 1890-1950," Journal of Economic History 56(1), 1996, 39-61.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Seager, Henry Rogers. "Provision for Old Age," IN Social Insurance: A Program of Social Reform. New York, Macmillan Company, 1910. Chapter 5, pp. 115-145.
From a classic early work on social insurance.

Why Social Security?
Booklet published by the Social Security Board in 1937 to explain the rationale underlying the new Social Security program.

Native Americans

Prucha, Francis Paul. A Bibliographical Guide to the History of Indian-White Relations in the United States. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1977.
Dana Call Number: Ref. Z1209.2 .U5P67

Young Joseph. "An Indian's View of Indian Affairs," North American Review 128, April 1879, 412-433.
Young Joseph was a chief of the Nez PercÚ.

Jackson, Helen Hunt. A Century of Dishonor: The Early Crusade for Indian Reform. Andrew F. Rolle (ed.), New York, Harper & Row, 1965.
Hunt's 1881 publication about the unjust treatment that Indians were receiving at the hands of the federal government triggered pressure for reform of Indian policies which resulted in the 1887 Dawes Act.
Dana Call Number: E93 .J13 1965

Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
Under the Dawes Act Indian tribes lost their legal standing and all tribal lands were converted to individual ownership. Note: Select "document transcript" to see the actual text of the Act.

Oskison, John M. " Remaining Causes of Indian Discontent," North American Review 184, March 1, 1907, 486-493.

Wilkins, David E. " Transformations in Supreme Court Thought: The Irresistible Force (Federal Indian Law & Policy) Meets the Movable Object (American Indian Tribe Status)," Social Science Journal 30(2), April 1, 1993, 181-207.
Analyzes "107 federal court cases involving American Indian tribal sovereignty and federal pleary [sic] power rendered between 1870 and 1921... [with a] focus on the Court's role in formulating public policy towards American Indian tribes in four major issue areas: congressional power, criminal law, allotment and membership, and natural resources."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Critchlow, Donald T. " Lewis Meriam, Expertise, and Indian Reform," Historian 43(3), May 1981, 325-344.
After years of criticism of the U.S. Indian Service, in the Spring of 1926 Lewis Meriam of the Institute for Government Research was asked to investigate the prevailing social conditions among American Indians. His subsequent report, The Problem of Indian Administration (1928) is considered a major turning point in federal Indian policy.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

A New Deal for the American Indian. Literary Digiest April 7, 1938.

Indian Reorganization Act [Wheeler-Howard Act]. June 18, 1934.
Part of the "Indian New Deal," the Indian Reorganization Act reversed the Dawes Act of 1887 by returning lands to tribal control.


Some relevant subject headings that you can use in IRIS include:

African Americans History
African Americans Social Conditions
African Americans Civil Rights History
Segregation in Education United States
Discrimination in Employment United States History
Slavery - Law and Legislation
Slaves - Emancipation
Slaves - United States

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History New York, Macmillan, 1996. 5 vols plus Supplement (2001).
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History: The Black Experience in the Americas 2nd edition. Detroit, Macmillan, 2006. 6 vols.
Signed entries covering all aspects of African-American history and life. While the 2d edition expands the scope of the work beyond North America, it has only a little more than half of the number of entries found in the first edition. Many of the U.S.-centered articles (for example, entries on states and major cities) are not available in the 2d edition. About half of the articles that appear in both have been updated in the 2d edition. Bibliographic references. Together, a good starting point for research.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E185 .E54 1996.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E185 .E54 2006. Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted Access

Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery. Edited by John Randall Miller and John David Smith. New York, Greenwood, 1988.
Extensive collection of articles relating to slavery in the U.S. Bibliographic references.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E441 .D53 1988

Aptheker, Herbert. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. 3 vols. New York, 1969.
Compilation of documents, including petitions, speeches, testimonies, reports, letters, and other writings, covering the years 1661 to 1945.
Dana Call Number: E185. A58

Carlton-LaNey, Iris. " African American Social Work Pioneers' Response to Need," Social Work 44(4), July 1999, 311-321.
"Discusses the fundamental values and principles that guided African American social work practice at the beginning of the century."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

O'Donnell, Sandra M. "The Care of Dependent African-American Children in Chicago: The Struggle Between Black Self-Help and Professionalism," Journal of Social History 27, Summer 1994, 763-776.
"The African-American self-help tradition of caring for dependent children in Chicago was undermined by the increased organization and professionalization of social welfare provisions during the Progressive and the post-World War I eras."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Minter, Thomas K. and Alfred E Prettyman. "Education," Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. New York, Macmillan, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 846-876.
Overview of the history of African-American education from slavery thru current issues involving school choice. Includes a lengthy bibliography.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E185 .E54 1996.

Flicker, Douglas J. "From Roberts to Plessy: Educational Segregation and the 'Separate But Equal' Doctrine," The Journal of Negro History 84(4), Autumn 1999, 301-314.
Traces the history of legalized educational segregation.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.


Latino Encyclopedia. Richard and Rafael Chabran, editors. New York, Marshall Cavendish, 1996. 6 vols.
More than 1900 entries ranging from several paragraphs to signed full-length articles with annotated bibliographies relating to the Latino experience in the United States.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E184 .S75L57 1996.

Latinos in the United States: A Historical Bibliography. Albert Camarillo (ed.), Santa Barbara, Calif., ABC-Clio, 1986.
Dana Call Number: Ref. E184 .S75L38 1986

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Gutmann, Myron P. "A New Look at the Hispanic Population of the United States in 1910", Historical Methods 32(1), Winter 1999, 5-19.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

"From Exclusion to Expulsion: Mexicans and Tuberculosis in Los Angeles, 1914-1940," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 77(4), 2003, 823-849.
"The identification of tuberculosis with Mexicans during the 1920s...figured prominently in efforts to restrict their immigration in the 1920s, and in the deportation and repatriation drives of the 1930s."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

McKay, Robert R. Mexican Americans and Repatriation
From the Handbook of Texas Online.


To find books on immigrants in the United States search IRIS, the Rutgers online catalog. Some relevant subject headings include:

Immigrants United States
Immigrants United States Social Conditions
United States Emigration and Immigration
United States Emigration and Immigration Government Policy History

Encyclopedia of American Immigration. James Ciment, Immanuel Ness, editors. Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe, 2000. 4 vols.
Immigration history; immigration issues (causes, demographics, acculturation, laws and legislation, politics, economics, etc.); and immigration documents (laws, treaties, court cases, reports, etc.).Volumes 3 and 4 contain articles on specific immigrant groups in America.
Dana Call Number: Ref. JV6465.E53 2000

Executive Summary: U.S. Immigration: A Legislative History
"Highlights the history of U.S. immigration legislation and the parallel rise and fall in numbers and changing ethnic makeup." From the Population Resource Center.

Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990
22 Detailed tables.

Claghorn, Kate Holladay. " The Foreign Immigrant in New York City," Reports of the Industrial Commission 15, 1901, 465-492.

Eugenic Laws Restricting Immigration
Virtual exhibit with accompanying essay by Paul Lombardo. From the Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement

"Biological Aspects of Immigration," Testimony of Harry L. Laughlin before the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, April 16-17, 1920.


Veterans Benefit History
Brief overview of benefits from the Revolutionary era to Vietnam. From PBS.

Skocpol, Theda. "American's First Social Security System: The Expansion of Benefits for Civil War Veterans," Political Science Quarterly 108(1), Spring 1993, 85-116.
"Between 1880 and 1910, the U.S. federal government devoted over a quarter of its expenditure to pensions distributed among the populace...This article analyzes the political forces behind the growth of federal Civil War pensions...."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Holcombe, Randall G. " Veterans Interests and the Transition to Government Growth: 1870-1915," Public Choice 99 (3-4), June 1999, 311-326.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Bonus March, 1932
Newspaper clippings, correspondance, photographs, and other materials relating to the military dispersal of World War I veterans and their families who had set up an encampment in Washington in an attempt to pressure the government to redeem their bonus certificates.

Wallerstein, Mitchel B. " Terminating Entitlements: Veterans' Disability Denefits in the Depression," Policy Sciences 7(2), June 1976, 173-182.
Examines "a short-lived attempt to reduce entitlement benefits for veterans during the era of the Depression."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

The Mentally Ill

To find books on the treatment of the mentally ill search IRIS, the Rutgers online catalog. Some relevant subject headings include:

"History of Mental Health Services," IN Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Md., National Institute of Mental Health, 1999. Chapter 2, pp. 75; 78-80.

Luchins, Abraham S. Moral Treatment in Asylums and General Hospitals in 19th-Century America," Journal of Psychology 123(6), November 1989, 585-607.
"Moral treatment, a therapeutic approach that emphasized character and spiritual development, and called for kindness on the part of all who came in contact with the patient, flourished in American mental hospitals during the first half of the 19th century...Changing social and welfare services and advances in scientific medicine contributed to a subsequent decline in moral treatment...."
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Bly, Nellie. Ten Days in a Mad-House New York, Ian L. Munro, 1888.
In 1888 New York World journalist Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman) allowed herself to be committed to New York City's most notorious insane asylum.

Beers, Clifford W. A Mind That Found Itself: An Autobiography. New York, Longmans, Green and Co., 1908.
Beers account of his struggle with mental illness and the deplorable state of mental health care in the U.S. had a profound effect on mental health care reform.

Grob, Gerald N. " The Transformation of the Mental Hospital in the United States," American Behavioral Scientist 28(5), May/June 1985, 639-654.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

The Mentally Disabled

To find books on the treatment of the mentally disabled search IRIS, the Rutgers online catalog. Some relevant subject headings include:

Goode, David. "A Short History of the Treatment of Persons With Mental Retardation," IN "And Now Let's Build a Better World": The Story of the Association for the Help of Retarded Children, New York City 1948-1998. New York, AHRC, 1998. Chapter 1, pp.6-17.

[Articles Relating to the Mentally Disabled]
Seven articles on "feeblemindedness" published in The Survey between 1912 and 1922.

Johnstone, E. R. Excerpt from "Committee Report: Stimulating Public Interest in the Feeble-Minded," Proceedings of National Conference Charities and Correction 1916, 205-215.

Ochsner, Albert J. "The Surgical Treatment of Habitual Criminals, Imbeciles, Perverts, Paupers, Morons, Epileptics, and Degenerates," Annals of Surgery 82(3), September 1925, 321-325.
The Presidential Address delivered before the American Surgical Association, May 4, 1925.

NASW Policy Statements

National Association of Social Workers. Social Work Speaks: National Association of Social Workers Policy Statements: 2009-2012. 8th edition. Washington, D.C., 2009.
64 policy statements, including 25 new/revised statements approved by the 2008 NASW Delegate Assembly, designed to guide policy advocacy and legal action. Topic areas include adolescents, aging, behavioral health, child welfare, community, discrimination and equity issues, education, employment, ethnicity and race, families and children, family planning, gender issues, health, 'macro issues,' political action, social work professional statements, substance abuse, and violence. Each statement includes background information, a statement of issues, the policy statement, its legislative history, and a list of references.
Dana Call Number: Ref HV85 .N33a 2009

Social Work Speaks Abstracts
Brief summaries of 23 of the above policies.

Natalie Borisovets (
John Cotton Dana Library
September 6, 2005
rev. August 9, 2010