Rutgers University Libraries Teaching in Urban Schools
The Basics: "Restricted Access;" Off-Campus Links; Finding Books: IRIS; Book Delivery; Finding Articles: ERIC; Becoming an 'Expert' User Citing Your Sources
Trends and Issues Special Education Bilingual Education Student Achievement Teaching for Success
School Choice New Jersey Educational Reform No Child Left Behind Basic Data
RUL Home Page IRIS RUL Indexes Ask a Librarian

The Basics

Restricted Access

Many of the resources listed in the sections below are marked Restricted Access. You should have no problem connecting to these from any networked computer on campus. However, by contract, remote access to the Rutgers University Library's indexes, electronic journals, and electronic reserve articles is available only to current Rutgers students, faculty and staff. In order to use these from off-campus, you must log in with your Rutgers NetID. For instructions see the Libraries' Remote Access to Library Resources.

Off-Campus Links

Once you have gone to a Rutgers Libraries page and logged in with your NetID [your pegasus username and password] you can use the "Off-Campus Link" provided for each Rutgers-restricted resource below to connect to that database or article. These links will not work from a networked computer on-campus. Use either the link embedded in the citation or the link labeled "Electronic Reserve" to access these resources on campus.

IRIS: Find Books

IRIS is the online catalog for all the Rutgers University Libraries except the Newark and Camden Law Libraries. Some sections include specific suggestions for searching IRIS to locate other books on the topic(s) covered in that section.

Getting Books From Other Rutgers Libraries

If a book that you need is not available (not owned/checked out) at the Dana Library, but is available from another Rutgers Library, you can request delivery of that book to Dana by bringing up the record for the book in IRIS and clicking on tbe Deliver/Recall button. Show Me

ERIC: Finding Articles plus

ERIC is the primary database used to identify and locate education-related materials (articles, books, reports, etc.).

Becoming an 'Expert' User

Want to maximize your use of Library resources? Check out Searchpath, the Libraries' interactive tutorial.

Citing Your Sources

You will be using APA (American Psychological Association) style when citing the sources that you use in your Research Essays. The APA Publication Manual is available at the Dana Library Reference Desk. The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison also has an excellent introduction to APA Documentation that will give you the basic information you need to create APA citations and reference lists.

Not sure when you need to cite something? Check out the Plagiarism Guide

Urban Education: Trends and Issues

Flaxman, Erwin et al. Trends and Issues in Urban Education, 1998 October 1998.
Examines important trends and issues in urban and minority education. Focuses on practice, local policy, and implementation. Includes sections on multicultural education, school reform, school choice, charter schools, smaller schools, schools with a focus, school desegregation, after-school programs, parent involvement, language minority students, and violence prevention.

Critical Trends in Urban Education: Fifth Biennial Survey of America's Great City Schools. October 2002.
Fifth in a series of polls that survey the leadership of America's major urban public school systems about the challenges they face and their expectations for the future. Poll surveys board members, superintendents, and other leadership staff. Trend data compares 2001/2002 data with the results, where appropriate, of the four previous polls.

Ten Year Trends in Urban Education: 1987-1997
Brief highlights followed by tables and figures.

New York City’s Public High School Students Review their Schools’ Performance. May 2001
Survey of 1001 high school students.

Black, Susan. "Keeping Kids in School," American School Board Journal 189(12), December 2002.
What the research shows.

Dropouts in America Papers presented at the Dropouts in America conference, January 13, 2001, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Garber, Susan H. 'Hearing Their Voices':Perceptions of High-School Students Who Evidence Resistance to Schooling 2002

Steele, Claude M. Race and the Schooling of Black Americans
Originally published in the Atlantic Monthly, April 1992.

Rhymes, Edward. "'Acting White?': African-American Students and Education," The Black Commentator 100, July 22, 2004.
Refutes the notion that African-American students disregard education because they equate scholastic achievement with whiteness.

Special Education

Racial Disparities in Special Education: National Trends
Six charts illustrating the racial disparities within special education. From the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.

Civil Rights in Brief: Discrimination in Special Education
From the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education. M. Suzanne Donovan and Christopher T. Cross, editors. National Research Council, Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 2002.
Considers possible contributors to to the disproportionate representation of racial and ethnic minority students in special education and gifted and talented programs.

The Role of Reading Instruction in Addressing the Overrepresentation of Minority Children in Special Education in the United States
Position statement of the International Reading Association.
"IRA is concerned that lack of appropriate reading instruction and early interventions among low-performing minority children contributes to their overrepresentation in special education programs."

Skiba, Russel J. The Context of Minority Disproportionality: Local Perspectives on Special Education Referral. A Status Report. Indiana University, Indiana Education Policy Center, June 2003.
Study based on interviews with 66 educators (teachers, principals, school psychologists, and special education directors) in 14 Indiana schools with a high percentage of minority students in their special education programs.

Limited English Proficient Students and Special Education
"Some school districts have at times confused the educational needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students with the special education services required by students with disabilities."

Artiles, A.J., Within-Group Diversity in Minority Disproportionate Representation: English Language Learners in Urban School Districts. Exceptional Children 71(3), Spring 2005, 283-300.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Hoover, J.J., Differentiating Curriculum and Instruction for English Language Learners With Special Needs," Intervention in School and Clinic 40(4), March 2005, 231-5
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Bilingual Education

Linguistic Diversity and Teaching Non-Native Speakers of English
Guide from the WISE (Working to Improve Schools and Education) program at Ithaca College. Print and online resources.

Karabenick, Stuart A. and Noda, Phyllis A. Clemens. Professional Development Implications of Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes Toward English Language Learners," Bilingual Research Journal 28(1), 2004, 55-75.

Thomas, Wayne P. and Collier, Virginia P. A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence, 2001.
Results of a five-year study of five urban and rural research sites, looking at the long-term academic achievement of all minority language students in those districts.

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA): Practice
Resources relevant to program design, curriculum development and lesson planning for the education of linguistically and culturally diverse learners.

Resources About Secondary English Language Learner Outcomes
From the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA).

Student Achievement

Hope for Urban Education: A Study of Nine High-Performing, High-Poverty Urban Elementary Schools. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Education, 1999.
Study of nine urban schools that used federal Title I dollars to create Title I schoolwide programs Student achievement in mathematics and reading at these schools was higher than the average of all schools in their state Report prepared by the Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas at Austin.

National Assessment of Educational Progress: The Nation's Report Card
Perodic reports on subject-matter (reading, mathematics, science, writing, U.S. history, civics, geography, and the arts) achievement, instructional experiences, and school environment for populations of students and subgroups of those populations. The National NAEP reports information for the nation and specific geographic regions of the country and reports student achievement at grades 4, 8, and 12.

Beating the Odds IV: A City-By-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gap on State Assessments Results from 2002-2003 School Year. March 2004.
4th annual report on student achievement in major city school systems in math and reading. Data are presented on 61 city school systems from 37 states. The statistics are presented city-by-city, year-by-year, and grade-by-grade on each state test in mathematics and reading. From the Council of the Great City Schools.

Teaching for Success

Pitts, V. R. " High Expectations: A "How" of Achieving Equitable Mathematics Classrooms, The Negro Educational Review 56(2/3), July 2005, 127-34.
"This paper suggests that low expectations play a significant role in the level of achievement of African American students in mathematics."
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Obed, Norman, Ault, Charles R. Jr., and Bentz, Bonnie. " The Black-White "Achievement Gap" as a Perennial Challenge of Urban Science Education: A Sociocultural and Historical Overview with Implications for Research and Practice," Journal of Research in Science Teaching 38(10), December 2001, 1101-1114.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Mason, T. C. " Predictors of Success in Urban Teaching: Analyzing Two Paradoxical Cases,. Multicultural Education 6(3), Spring 1999, 26-32.
Case study of two undergraduate field experiences. Identifies the factors that led to teaching success in one case and failure in the other.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

Patterson, J. H., " A Study of Teacher Resilience in Urban Schools," Journal of Instructional Psychology 31(1), March 2004, 3-11.
Results of a study of teachers in urban school districts whose students achieved standard test scores equal or higher to the state average.
Off-Campus Access Restricted Access

School Choice

The U.S. Department of Education sponsored a 4-year National Study of Charter Schools:

Frankenberg, Erica and Lee, Chungmei. Charter Schools and Race: A Lost Opportunity for Integrated Education. Education Policy Analysis Archives 11(32), September 5, 2003.
Looks at segregation patterns in the nation's charter schools.

Charter School Operations and Performance: Evidence from California. RAND Report MR-1700, 2003. Examines accessibility, student achievement, governance, and operation of California charter schools. Concludes that as there is no single charter school approach there is no single charter school effect.

Closing the Achievement Gap
PBS website that accompanies the program on the Amistad Academy, a charter school founded in 1999. Includes links to charter school resources and debates.

Educational Reform in New Jersey

Abbott v. Burke

Argued September 25, 1989; Decided June 5, 1990. NOTE: Enter 119 N.J. 287 into the Citation search box and click on Search.
Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

Abbott v Burke
Education Law Center site includes the texts of the Abbott IV - Abbott X decisions, a chronology, profiles of the New Jersey Abbott districts, news stories, etc.

To find other materials on Abbott v. Burke in IRIS, use the keywords: abbott and burke.

  • enter abbott and burke as your search terms (make sure you include the 'and')
  • click on SEARCH

Other relevant subject heading searches you can try include:

  • Educational Equalization Law and Legislation New Jersey
  • Education Finance Law and Legislation New Jersey
  • Educational Law and Legislation New Jersey

The Rutgers-Newark Law Library will also have a lot of material on this topic; use the above strategies to search the Law Library Catalog.

More on finding books in IRIS.

Need some articles?

You will need to use a periodical index in order to identify relevant articles on your topic.

The primary database for educational research is ERIC:

    ERIC The ERIC database contains more than one million abstracts covering research documents, journal articles, technical reports, program descriptions and evaluations, and curricular materials in the field of education. ERIC also provides links to a large collection of full-text reports. 1966+
    Off-Campus Link Restricted Access.

    Search Terms:

    If you are searching for, or combining terms with, specific legal cases in ERIC, you must search the case name as a keyword. In this case use "abbott v burke" as your search term. Show Me

Can't figure out how to get to the article? Show Me

Charter Schools

Evaluation of New Jersey Charter Schools
Highlights of the 2001 report, report on charter school hearings, and the Commissioners recommendations.

Visconti, Louisa et al. Charter Schools and Urban Education Improvement: Newark and New Jersey's Charter Schools National Conference on Charter Schools: Trends and Policy Issues. Sacramento, CA, March 27-28, 2004.

Callahan, Kathe, Sadovnik, Alan, and Visconti, Louisa. Performance-Based Accountability: Newark's Charter School Experience. Newark, Cornwall Center for Metropolitan Studies, June 2002 (revised December 2002).

Newark Schools

New Jersey. Legislature. Joint Committee on the Public Schools. Committee Meeting of Joint Committee on the Public Schools: Testimony on the State Operation of the Newark Public Schools.

February 5, 1997: Dana Call Number: NEWARK LA333 .N6P83 2/5/97
March 5, 1997: Dana Call Number: NEWARK LA333 .N6P83 3/5/97

Eglinton, William M. Myths and Realities: The Impact of the State Takeover on Students and Schools in Newark. Boston Mass., Community Training and Assistance Center, c.2000. 89 pp.

Visconti, Louisa et al. Charter Schools and Urban Education Improvement: Newark and New Jersey's Charter Schools National Conference on Charter Schools: Trends and Policy Issues. Sacramento, CA, March 27-28, 2004.

2004 Newark Schools Report Card
Narrative profile plus data (class size, internet connectivity, grade enrollment, language diversity, student performance indicators, faculty, district financial data, etc.] for each school in the Newark City district.

2004 Newark Schools "No Child Left Behind" Report
Status regarding adequate yearly progress; information on highly qualified teachers; attendance and dropout data; and assessment data for each school in the Newark City district.

No Child Left Behind

No Child Left Behind: A Desktop Reference

Education Commission of the States. ECS Report to the Nation: State Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act. July 2004.
Analysis of NCLB implementation.

Walker-Dalhouse, D. " No Child Left Behind: Key Issues and Instructional Implications for Teachers of African-American Children," Reading Horizons 45(3), January/February 2005, 155-74

Serving Those Most In Need or Not? A Report on the Implementation of the NCLB's Supplemental Education Services in New York City. New York, Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., October 2003.
Report assessing the implementation and effectiveness of the Supplemental Education Services program (SES) required under the No Child Left Behind Act.

Basic Data

The New Jersey Municipal Data Book. Montclair, N.J., New Jersey Associates, 1981- Annual
One page summaries
[sample] of the population, government, finances, schools, and other characterisitics of each of New Jersey's towns and cities.
Dana Call Number: REF HD4606.N49N5. Most recent volume at Reference Desk.

School District Demographics
Census 2000 demographic data about children and their living environment, by school district. Also includes school district maps, as well as population and poverty estimites for school districts.

Natalie Borisovets (
John Cotton Dana Library
October 4, 2005