INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

21:300:395 @ Rutgers, 3 credits

28:300:485 @ NJIT, 3 credits

Thursdays: 11:30 to 2:20

157 Bradley Hall @ Rutgers-Newark

Spring 2007

 

 

Instructor:  Dr. Arthur B. Powell, PowellAB@andromeda.rutgers.edu

Office: Rutgers University-Newark, 156 Bradley Hall (110 Warren Street @ MLK, Jr. Blvd.) Phone: 973.353.3530

Office hours:  Wednesday 1:00 – 2:00 p.m., Thursdays 10:00 – 11:00 a.m.

 

Download syllabus as PDF

I.    Overview

Information and communication technology (ICT) pervades virtually all domains of modern life—personal, social, professional, and educational.  Up until now, when ICT has been incorporated into the curricula of most US high schools, the focus has tended to be on skills in the use of tools such as specific word-processing and presentation software or contemporary Internet search engines.  Nevertheless, educators are increasingly employing ICT as a crucial meaning-making tool, assisting learners to construct and engage fundamental disciplinary concepts and to collaborate with intellectual partners inside and beyond the physical confines of their high school.

This course examines research-based understandings of both learning and effective learning environments applied to the integration of ICT into instruction to foster community, collaboration, conceptual development, and exceptional academic performance.  The course pays particular attention to present and potential access and academic uses of ICT in underresourced urban schools with racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse students whose families tend not to be participants in the US societys culture of power.

The course assumes that participating students are aspiring to be secondary school teachers in urban environments.  Though discussions and examples of content instruction with ICT will range among the core academic subjects taught in high schools, students will be invited to specify assigned course projects to their disciplinary interest.

 

II.  Materials and Readings

Required (available on Blackboard or the Internet)

1.     New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards (for all school subjects): http://www.state.nj.us/njded/cccs/cccs.pdf

2.     Newark Public Schools (2005). Instructional Technology Standards Guide. Newark: Department of Teaching and Learning.

3.     Ainley, J., Banks, D., & Fleming, M. (2002). The influence of IT: Perspectives from five Australian schools. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(4), 395-404.

4.     Bell, P. (1997). Using argument representations to make thinking visible for individual and groups. In R. Hall, N. Miyake & N. Enyedy (Eds.), Proceedings of CSCL '97: The Second International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (pp. 10-19). Toronto: University of Toronto.

5.     Hennessy, S., Wishart, J., Whitelock, D., Deaney, R., Brawn, R., la Velle, L., et al. (2007). Pedagogical approaches for technology-integrated science teaching. Computers and Education, 48(1), 137-152.

6.     Hill, C. (2003). Integrating digital tools into culturally diverse curriculum: An assessment model for the Pacesetter Program. Teachers College Record, 105(2), 278-296.

7.     Marri, A. R. (2005). Educational technology as a tool for multicultural democratic education: The case of one US history teacher in an underresourced high school. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 4(4), 395-409.

8.     McGraw, R., & Grant, M. (2005). Investigating mathematics with technology: Lesson structures that encourage a range of methods and solutions. In W. J. Masalski & P. C. Elliott (Eds.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environments (Vol. Sixty-Seventh Yearbook, pp. 303-317). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

9.     Powell, A. B., & Lpez, J. A. (1989). Writing as a vehicle to learn mathematics:  A case study. In P. Connolly & T. Vilardi (Eds.), The Role of Writing in Learning Mathematics and Science (pp. 157-177). New York: Teachers College.

10.  Sayers, D. (1995). Educational equity issues in an information age. Teachers College Record, 96(4), 767-774.

11.  Schacter, J., & Fagnano, C. (1999). Does computer technology improve student learning and achievement? How, when, and under what conditions? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 20(4), 329-343.

12.  Scheckelhoff, T. H. (2006). Girls & technology: How can we support girls in integrating technologies more fully in their learning. Library Media Connection, 52-55

13.  Smith, M. S., & Broom, M. (2003). The landscape and future of the use of technology in K-12 education. In H. F. O'Neil & R. S. Perez (Eds.), Technology applications in education: A learning view (pp. 3-30). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

14.  Warschauer, M., Knobel, M., & Stone, L. (2004). Technology and equity in schooling: Deconstructing the digital divide. Educational Policy, 18(4), 562-588.

15.  White, B., Frederiksen, J., Frederiksen, T., Eslinger, E., Loper, S., & Collins, A. (2002). Inquiry island: Affordances of a multi-agent environment for scientific inquiry and reflective learning. In P. Bell, R. Stevens & T. Satwicz (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Suggested (available on Blackboard, the Internet, or through IRIS)

1.     New Jersey Professional Standards for Teachers and School Leaders: http://www.state.nj.us/njded/profdev/profstand/standards.pdf

2.     Alejandre, S. (2005). The reality of using technology in the classroom. In W. J. Masalski & P. C. Elliott (Eds.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environments (Sixty-Seventh Yearbook, pp. 137-150). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

3.     Fishman, B. J. (2006).  Its not about the technology. Teachers College Record, Date Published: July 06, 2006 http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 12584, Date Accessed: 11/6/2006 11:00:43 AM.

4.     Judge, S., Puckett, K., & Bell, S. M. (2006). Closing the digital divide: Update from the early childhood longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(1), 52-60.

5.     Linn, M. C., Slotta, J. D., & Baumgartner, E. (2000). Teaching high school science in the information age: A review of courses and technology for inquiry-based learning. Santa Monica, CA: Milken Family Foundation.

6.     O'Donnell, A. M., Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & Erkens, G. (Eds.). (2006). Collaborative learning, reasoning, and technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

7.     Mayer, R. E. (2003). Theories of learning and their application to technology. In H. F. O'Neil & R. S. Perez (Eds.), Technology applications in education: A learning view (pp. 127-157). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

8.     Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

9.     Warschauer, M. (2003). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. Cambridge: MIT.

 

III. Assignments

A.  Readings: abstracts, discussion questions, and papers

For each abstract, set of discussion questions, and papers that you write, you will earn one of three grades: a check-plus, a check, or a check-minus.  For your abstracts, discussion questions, and papers, if you ever receive a check-minus, this indicates that you are invited to revise the work and resubmit it the following week to earn, possibly, a higher grade.

 

B.   Projects: You will have three major projects, the first two of which are designed to inform the third one—a curriculum unit.

 

IV. Evaluation Criteria

Readings: abstracts, discussion questions, and papers                          15%

Projects

Project 1:  Collaborative Web site and lesson plan                           15%

Project 2:  ICT in Newark high schools                                           25%

Project 3:  Curriculum Unit                                                             40%

Attendance and participation                                                                 5%

No late assignment will be accepted.  No incomplete grades will be granted.

 

V.  Week-by-Week Semester Schedule

Date

Topics

Classwork, Readings, Assignments, & Projects

Week 1

Introductions and goals of the course; grading rubric; papers and projects.

 

Historical overview of information and communication technology (ICT) in education.

     The Handshake Problem

     Writing as an information and communication technology useful for learning; expressive and transactional writing

     How to write abstracts of articles

     Assignment:

o      Read Powell & Lpez (1989) and write an abstract. Submit the abstract via the Digital Dropbox on Blackboard.

o      Develop an activity in which writing is vehicle for learning, not solely for assessing learning.  Explain the philosophical or theoretical justification of the activity.

Week 2

ICT and learning:  What does research say? (Part I)

     Discussion of Powell & Lpez (1989) and discussion questions (DQs).

     Discussion of writing-to-learn activities.

     Group reading and discussion of NPS Curriculum Integration Matrix for Technology as an Instructional Tool.

     Assignment:

o      Read Smith & Broom (2003) and write an abstract. Submit the abstract via Digital Dropbox.

o      Project 1(Part A): Discover and characterize an online, Internet resource that allows students at remote sites to collaborate on a problem-solving task.  Ideally, the online resource should allow users to integrate instant messaging (IM) or chat, e-mail, video via webcams, and an interactive white board.  Moreover, it also should allow one to archive communication along all channels.  Present your description of what the Web site offers in the form of an outline or bulleted list with brief descriptions of each feature, including how users register. Submit via Digital Dropbox.

Week 3

 

ICT and learning:  What does research say? (Part II)

 

Economic-class equity and ICT in education

 

     Discussion of Smith & Broom (2003).

     Presentation and discuss of collaborative Web sites (Project 1, Part A).

     Assignment:

o      Read McGraw & Grant (2005) and write an abstract.  Submit the abstract via Digital Dropbox.

o      Project 1(Part B): Develop a two-day lesson plan that engages students in collaborating with peers at a remote site on a problem-solving task, referencing relevant NJCCCS and the NPS Instructional Technology Standards Guide.  The lesson should also involve writing as a learning tool.  Submit via Digital Dropbox. Due Week 5.

o      Familiarize yourself with Microsoft PowerPoint and create a simple, four- to five-slide presentation that describes what discipline you want to teach, why you want to teach that subject, why you want to teach it in an urban high school, and, finally, how your philosophy of education ties.  You will present your presentation orally.  Submit your .ppt file via Digital Dropbox.

Week 4

Lesson types and theories of learning applied to instruction with ICT (Part I).

     Dyadic responses to the DQs for McGraw & Grant (2005)

     Discussion of McGraw & Grant (2005)

     Presentation of PowerPoint introductions

     Assignment:

o      Create PowerPoint presentation of your two-day lesson (Project 1, Part B).

o      Create a PowerPoint presentation that discusses the reading to which your group is assigned (due Week 6):

       Group A: Read Schacter & Fagnano (1999) and White, Frederiksen, Frederiksen, Eslinger, Loper, & Collins (2002)

       Group B: Read Schacter & Fagnano (1999) and Bell (1997)

Week 5

Theories of learning applied to instruction with ICT (Part II).

 

Interviewing as a research tool

 

     PowerPoint Presentation of ICT lesson plans on collaborative problem solving (Project 1, Part II)

     Developing interview questions on the use of ICT in Newark high schools.

     Assignment:

o      Read Sayers (1995).  Identify three issues that he raises and write your response to them.  Submit your responses to Discussion Board on Blackboard and to Digital Dropbox.

o      Find an article on the use of ICT to teach your discipline in secondary schools.  Write an abstract for the article and critical evaluation of the lesson, suggesting how you would improve it.  Submit the article, abstract, and critical evaluation to Digital Dropbox.  Due Week 7.

o      Project 2: ICT in Newark High Schools.  From the Documents tab on Blackboard, download instructions for the project: Information and communication technology in Newark High Schools.  Completed project due on Week 8.

Week 6

Racial and class equity of access to ICT in schools

     Collaborative PowerPoint presentations of group reading assignment.

     Discussion of Sayers (1995).

     Assignment:

o      Warschauer, Knobel, & Stone (2004) as well as Scheckelhoff (2006). Develop three DQs-like questions for each.

Week 7

Racial, class, and gender equity in relation to ICT in instruction

Using ICT to content disciplines

     Presentation of research-based article on the use of ICT to teach content disciplines in secondary schools

     Discussion of Warschauer, Knobel, & Stone (2004) and Scheckelhoff (2006).

     Assignment:

o      In a couple of paragraphs, discuss your current philosophical and theoretical understanding of the role that ICT should play in the learning and teaching of your discipline in urban secondary schools.

Week 8

Ethnographic report on ICT in secondary education in NPS

     Ethnographic report on information and communication technology in Newark high schools

     Assignment:

o      Project 3: Curriculum Unit. From Documents tab on Blackboard, download instructions for this final project.

Week 9

ICT and cultural diversity

     Project 3 group and class consultations

     Assignment:

o      Read Hill (2003) and develop three DQs-like questions.  Submit them to Digital Dropbox.

Week 10

Instructional Technology in Special Education; Evaluation of SPED software, hardware and practices

     Ethnographic report on information and communication technology in Newark high schools

     Discuss Hill (2003)

     Assignment:

o      Read Ainley, Banks, & Fleming (2002).  Compare and contrast this article with Warschauer, Knobel, & Stone (2004).

Week 11

International perspectives on instructional access and use of ICT

     Project 3 peer-consultations and feedback

     Discussion of Ainley, Banks, & Fleming (2002)

     Comparing and contrasting Ainley, Banks, & Fleming (2002) and Warschauer, Knobel, & Stone (2004).

     Assignment:

o      Read Marri (2005) and write a 5-paragraph reaction paper, reflecting on how Marris Sinclair incorporates educational technology to teach history from a critical perspective.

Week 12

An international perspective on instructional use of ICT in science instruction

     Project 3 peer-consultations and feedback

     Discussion of Marri (2005)

     Assignment:

o      Read Hennessy et al. (2007) and, in a couple of paragraphs, write about how this reading informs your thinking about ICT in the learning and teaching of your discipline.  Submit your paragraphs to Discussion Board on Blackboard and to Digital Dropbox.

Week 13

ICT in the Classroom

     PowerPoint presentation and discussion of curriculum units

     Assignment:  Prepare CD or DVD of final Curriculum Unit and PowerPoint presentation

Week 14

ICT in the Classroom

     PowerPoint presentation and discussion of curriculum units

     Submit on CD or DVD the final version of your curriculum unit and PowerPoint presentation.

 


Project 1:

A.     Discover and characterize an online, Internet resource that allows students at remote sites to collaborate on a problem-solving task.  Ideally, the online resource should allow users to integrate instant messaging (IM) or chat, e-mail, video via webcams, and an interactive white board.  Moreover, it also should allow one to archive communication along all channels.  Present your description of what the Web site offers in the form of an outline or bulleted list with brief descriptions of each feature, including how users register.

B.     Develop a two-day lesson plan that engages students in collaborating with peers at a remote site on a problem-solving or project-development task, referencing relevant NJCCCS and the NPS Instructional Technology Standards Guide.  The lesson should also involve writing as a learning tool.


Project 2:

Information and Communication Technology in Newark High Schools

 

Project description

The aim of this project is to understand the extent and how public high schools in Newark integrate technology into instruction and, for this purpose, provide teachers with training, resources, and support.  To accomplish this aim, you and your partner will interview the technology coordinator and subject chair in one of the Newark Public Schools high schools.

You and your partner (see the list below on page 2) are to prepare a PowerPoint presentation, complete with digital and other images, as you feel appropriate, that reports on the information you obtain during your interview with the technology coordinator and subject chair at your assigned high school. 

You should request examples of assignments and, if at all possible, samples of student work.

Submit your PowerPoint document via Digital Dropbox on Blackboard.

 

1.   As a team, you and your partner are to make an appointment and talk with the technology coordinator at your assigned high school.  During your interview, inquire into how information technology supports and is integrated into instruction.  Among questions that you might ask, consider the following ones:

(a)   Is technology an important component of instruction?  Why or why not?

(b)  What types of technology does the school have available for instruction?

(c)   What is the ratio of instructional computers to the number of students in the school?

(d)  How are teachers supported in their use of technology?  What professional development opportunities does the school or school district provide for teachers to enable them to integrate technology into their instruction?

(e)   What are specific examples of how technology is used for instruction in the school?

(f)   What are current exemplary uses of instructional technology in the school?

(g)  In what ways does the school expect, support, or encourage students to use computer outside of school?

(h)  What issues around students use of the Internet and the World Wide Web concerns the school community?  How are these concerns addressed?

(i)    What does the school need to make instructional uses of technology more effective?

(j)    What do future teachers need to know about connecting technology and instruction?

 

2.     As a team, you and your partner are to make an appointment and talk with the head of department of your subject area at your assigned high school.  During your interview, inquire into how information technology supports and is integrated into instruction in your subject area.  Consider the following questions among others that you might ask:

(a)   Is technology an important component of instruction?  Why or why not?

(b)  What types of technology does the department make available for instructional purposes?

(c)   What is the ratio of instructional computers to the number of students in the department?

(d)  How are teachers supported in their use of technology?  What professional development opportunities does the department provide for teachers on the integration of technology into their instruction?

(e)   What are current exemplary uses of instructional technology in the department?

(f)   In what ways does the department expect, support, or encourage students to use computer outside of school?

(g)  What issues around students use of the Internet and the World Wide Web concerns teachers in the department? How are these concerns addressed?

(h)  What does the department need to make instructional uses of technology more effective?

(i)    What do future teachers of the department need to know about connecting technology and instruction?


Information and Communication Technology in Secondary Schools

Project 3: Curriculum Unit

 

 

Your curriculum unit is to exemplify how you would use information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for engaging students in developing fundamental disciplinary concepts and for collaborating among themselves as well as, perhaps, others students, community person, or subject expert at a remote location.

Drafts of your curriculum unit will be examined and discussed in class.  Expect to rethink and rewrite your curriculum unit, building on feedback from your colleagues and instructor.

 

Curriculum Unit Outline

Include the following sections in your curriculum unit:

 

  1. Teaching philosophy: Define your content area and, as you see it, describe its purpose in the curriculum of secondary schools.  Discuss your current philosophical and theoretical understanding of the role that ICT should play in the learning and teaching of your discipline in urban secondary schools.  (Be sure that your understanding is reflected in sections B—unit overview—and C—lesson plans.)
  2. Curriculum unit overview: Provide the theme, objective, and purpose of the unit and a summary of what students will learn from engaging in your curriculum unit.  For each lesson, indicate specifically which standards and strands and how it addresses of the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards (NJCCCS) from both your subject discipline and Technological Literacy (see NJCCCS, pp. 248 – 255).  (Recall that the Technological Literacy standards are intended to apply across content areas and, therefore, need to be known and implemented by all subject teachers.)
  3. Lesson plans: Detail at least seven lessons that develop the curriculum units theme and rationale.  Each description of a lesson should contain the following seven sections:

1.     objective and purpose;

2.     NJCCCS standards and strands (discipline and Technological Literacy);

3.     anticipatory set;

4.     materials;

5.     type of instruction (collaborative small group, lecture, problem-based, repetitive practice, scaffolding, modeling, and so on);

6.     activity or tasks; and

 


7.     formative assessment:

                                      i.     checks for understanding,

                                    ii.     reflection,

                                   iii.     practice,

                                   iv.     exit tickets, or

                                    v.     guided or independent assessment.

Some lessons should involve students in using writing as a vehicle to learn and effective uses of ICT to foster conceptual development, collaboration, and exceptional academic performance.

  1. Annotated bibliography: Include books, articles, and Web sites that you use to develop your lesson as well as sources that students will be expected to access.  The bibliographic format may be in APA, MLA, or Chicago style.

Submission Requirements

On or before the last day of class, (1) submit via Dropbox on Blackboard the final version of your curriculum unit, as a single MS-Word document, and your PowerPoint presentation about your unit; (2) hand in a hard copy of your curriculum unit; and finally, (3) turn in a CD or DVD that contains your unit and any video or other media files that pertain to your unit as well as all of your PowerPoint presentations from the semester.