Administration of Justice

Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Crime in Canada: Summary of Major Trends 1999, 2001, 2003, & 2006
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-561-m/85-561-m2008015-eng.pdf

"This paper summarizes the major trends in the series on the spatial analysis of crime conducted by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) using geographic information system technology in Canadian cities. The main purpose of this analytical series, which was funded by the National Crime Prevention Centre at Public Safety Canada, was to explore the relationships between the distribution of crime and the demographic, socio‑economic and functional characteristics of neighbourhoods.
"

BC STATS-Province of British Columbia
www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/

Provides statistics on population and demographics, economic statistics, census data, and other social indicators for British Columbia. Also provides access to reports and publications.

Breaking and Entering in Canada
This report provides an overview of residential, business, and ‘other’ breaking and entering (B&E) offences in Canada including trends in police-reported B&Es at the national, provincial/territorial and census metropolitan area levels
(website).
Canadian Crime Statistics
"This publication provides a statistical summary of police-reported crime in Canada and the provinces/territories back to 1962. The data presented in this publication are taken from the two Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) databases."

A Comparison of Large Urban, Small Urban and Rural Crime Rates, 2005
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/85-002-XIE2007003.pdf

This publication presents a comparative analysis of police-reported crime statistics in large urban, small urban and rural areas. It examines overall crime rates as well as the specific offences of homicide, robbery, break-ins and motor vehicle theft in these three geographic areas. Data on the most serious weapon present in violent crimes and victim-offender relationships are likewise analyzed. The report also features the perception of the residents of large urban, small urban and rural areas regarding their safety from crime and the job being done by the police, as well as precautionary measures taken.

Crime Comparisons between Canada and the United States
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0110185-002-XIE.pdf

This report "provides a cross-national analysis of Canadian and American crime rates and presents trend analysis on the comparable offences. It can be argued that crime rates should not be compared at the national level, as Canada and the United States have very different regional variations in crime, as well as varying sociodemographic and economic characteristics."


Crime in Major Metropolitan Areas, 1991-1995
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0059785-002-XIE.pdf

This report examines a general notion that there is more crime in a large city than in a small city or rural community.

Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada
"This report presents information on the short and long-term trends in overall, violent and non-violent crime at the national, provincial/territorial and census metropolitan area levels. For the first time, this report includes information on both the volume and the severity of police-reported crime in Canada. The new police-reported Crime Severity Index (PRCSI) was introduced in the spring of 2009 to enable Canadians to track changes in the severity of police-reported crime from year to year." (website)

Crime Statistics in Canada
"These data represent information on criminal incidents reported by Canadian police services to the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey.  Incidents that come to the attention of the police are captured and forwarded to the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) according to a nationally-approved set of common crime categories and definitions."

Criminal Justice Indicator, 1999-2001, 2005
www.statcan.ca/bsolc/english/bsolc?catno=85-227-X&CHROPG=1

"The objective of the reports is to present data on the prime workload, performance and context of crime indicators. While most data are presented at the national level, some analysis at the provincial and territorial levels is included."

Homicide in Canada    
"As part of the Homicide Survey, the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) collects detailed police-reported information on all homicides that occur in Canada."  This report "examines homicide trends at the national, provincial/territorial and census metropolitan area levels. Information describing the characteristics associated with the methods used to commit homicide (including the use of firearms), accused victim relationships (such as spousal or other family-related homicides), gang-related homicides, victims’ involvement in illegal activities, the use of alcohol and drugs and youth homicides is also presented." (website)"

Impaired Driving in Canada
This report "analyzes trends in impaired driving and other traffic offences under the Criminal Code. Points include new legislation on impaired driving; identification of variables that may be contributing to the general decline; and a brief examination of dangerous driving."
Justice and Crime Statistics
www40.statcan.ca/l01/ind01/l2_2693.htm


Statistics Canada! provides statistics on crimes; victims, suspects and criminals; the police; and the courts.


Justice Factfinder

“The Justice Factfinder” is produced in response to questions posed by the justice community, the media and the general public. This information is intended to provide a national summary of critical issues covered in-depth by publications produced over the course of the year.

Justice Spending in Canada       
This report "examines some of the government expenditures associated with operating five major sectors of the Canadian justice system: policing, courts, legal aid, criminal prosecutions and adult corrections."

Motor Vehicle Theft in Canada
This report "provides a profile of motor vehicle theft in Canada, including trends over the past decade, characteristics of thefts, and of persons accused of motor vehicle theft."

Pilot Analysis of Recidivism among Convicted Youth and Young Adults, 1999/00
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0090285-002-XIE.pdf

"This report has several objectives. First, it attempts to gauge the prevalence of recidivism in young adults by examining the conviction histories of young adults convicted in Canadian criminal courts in 1999/2000.  Secondly, it examines the transition from youth to adult offending, including patterns of re-offending, and differences in conviction histories by age of onset. Finally, the impact of conviction history on court sentencing outcomes is examined."

Public Attitude toward the Criminal Justice System
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0120085-002-XIE.pdf

"This report examines public attitudes toward the criminal justice system. In particular, it shows how Canadians rate the local police, criminal courts, prison and parole systems, and it identifies some of the factors which may influence a person’s attitudes including their sex, age, level of education, satisfaction with personal safety, and victimization experience."

Weapon and Violent Crime
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0079785-002-XIE.pdf

This report examines the extent to which weapons, such as guns, knives and blunt objects, are used in violent crimes.

World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems, Canada
http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/ascii/WFBCJCAN.TXT

Provides a narrative description of the criminal justice system of Canada. Forty-two other country descriptions are written with a common template so that comparisons of similar functions in different countries can be made easily.


Corrections

Adult Correctional Services in Canada
"The data contained in the reports pertain to services provided by governmental agencies responsible for adult corrections in each of the provincial, territorial and federal sectors. More specifically, the data examine caseload characteristics as well as resource expenditures relating to adult custodial and community supervision services." (website)"
Adult Male Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r79/r79_e.pdf

This report is a summary and presentation of recent trends involving adult male offenders in Canada. The data were derived from the Uniform Crime Report Survey and the Adult Criminal Court Survey, both published by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Where available, the analyses in this report examine adult male offender trends over the past 5 years.

Basic Facts About Federal Corrections
collection.nlc-bnc.ca/100/201/301/basic_facts_fed_corrections/e.pdf-basic

This is a publication of the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) designed to answer basic questions about federal corrections and conditional release. Most information refers to adult corrections and covers the period from 1 April 1998 to 31 March 1999.

Canadian Federally Incarcerated Adult Women Profile Trends from 1991 to 1998

www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r99/r99_e.pdf

This report summarizes and presents profiles of the Canadian federally incarcerated adult women population over a twenty-two year period, from 1981 to 1998.

Canadian Federal Women Offender Profiles: Trends from 1981 to 2002
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r131/r131_e.pdf

This report summarizes and presents profiles of the federal women inmate population over a twenty-two year period, from 1981 to 2002. The report extends the trends covered in the earlier Canadian Federally Incarcerated Adult Women Profile Trends from 1981 to 1998.

The Changing Profile of Adults in Custody: 2006/2007
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2008010/article/10732-eng.pdf

This report examines the changes in the adult population in custody over the 2006 - 2007 time period. This report focuses on provincial versus territorial custody, admissions to sentenced custody versus remand to custody, as well as attributes of those in custody.

The Changing Profile of the Federal Inmate Population: 1997 and 2002
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r132/r132_e.pdf

This report compares the profile of the federal inmate population at two points in time - March 1997 and March 2002 - and addresses the issue of whether there have been significant changes in the federal offender population over the past several years.

Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview
This site is a statistical overview, documenting trends in corrections in a way that is meant to be user-friendly. The text is in English, with a French mirror page also available. This is the fourth edition of this report, and the writers note that there have been some changes in figures from previous reports. (website)

Custodial Remand in Canada, 1986/87 to 2000/01
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0070385-002-XIE.pdf

This report "profiles custodial remand in Canada and examines some of the factors that may be influencing these trends in its use. Note that due to gaps in coverage for youth corrections data in several jurisdictions, this report focuses primarily on adult corrections."

Deaths in Custody - Final Report
www.oci-bec.gc.ca/rpt/pdf/oth-aut/oth-aut20070228-eng.pdf

This Office of Correctional Investigator report was undertaken in response to high-number of incidents of inmate self-harm and death. This report contains basic information on victim and incident characteristics, findings, and summary and indices.

Federal Imprisonment Trends for Women: 1994-95 to 1998-99
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r93/r93_e.pdf

This report addresses the concern over the growth in the federal women's offender population. The report examines two leading indicators of the criminal justice process that may indicate changing incarceration rates for adult women in Canada: 1) trends in police reports of laying of charges against adult women, and 2) the conviction and sentencing patterns of adult women appearing in adult criminal court.

A Medium-Term Federal Offender Population Forecast
This report uses standard time-series modeling techniques to develop medium-term (5 year) offender population projections. Projections are provided for men and women incarcerated and under community supervision, by region, and from these the national offender population totals are derived (website).

Office of the Correctional Investigator - Annual Reports
The Office of the Correctional Investigator is tasked with investigating and bringing to resolution to individual offender complaints. These annual reports offer statistical and other analyses of the key issues and other ongoing concerns. In English.

A One-day Snapshot of Inmates in Canada's Adult Correctional Facilities
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0089885-002-XIE.pdf

This report "provides a brief description of adult correctional facilities in Canada. It then focuses on describing Canada’s adult inmates on one day of the year, including the number of inmates in custody, inmate characteristics, offences, and sentence length."

Preliminary Results of National Sex Offender Census 1991
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r29/r29e_e.pdf

This preliminary report describes in detail, the 'Sex Offender Census' that was conducted to accurately identify the number, types and characteristics of sex offenders under the jurisdiction of the Correctional Service of Canada. Data includes rate of admission of sex offenders; distributions of sex offenders; sexual offense histories and characteristics; and sex offender treatment and parole.

Recent Trends and Patterns Shaping
the Corrections Population in Canada: 1983/84 to 1996/97
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/briefs/b20/b20e-eng.shtml

This paper reports on some of the findings of The Research Branch of the Correctional Service that examined correctional population growth issues. Information includes trends in annual prison admissions; average sentence length; and average time served among offenders.

Remand in Adult Corrections and Sentencing Patterns
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2008009/article/10706-eng.pdf

This Juristat article discusses changes in sentencing patterns which have occurred while the numbers of adults held in remand (pre-trial detention) and the length of remand stays have increased. The analysis discusses data from the adult criminal court system for the period of 1996/1997 to 2006/2007 and the adult correctional system for the period of 1996/1997 to 2005/2006.

Returning to Correctional Services After Release: A Profile of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adults
Involved in Saskatchewan Corrections from 1999/00 to 2003/04

www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0020585-002-XIE.pdf

"This report examines the case histories and correctional outcomes of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal persons under provincial supervision in adult correctional services in Saskatchewan in the years 1999/00 through 2003/04. This is the first report analyzing data from the new Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICSS). This report begins by describing the delivery of correctional services in Canada, and in particular Saskatchewan, and provides a discussion of the correlates of criminal behaviour."

Ten-Year Status Report on Women's Corrections 1996-2006
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/prgrm/fsw/wos24/index-eng.shtml

This status report is produced on the ten year anniversary of the Arbor Report release and the completion of major subsequent major reviews in Canadian women's corrections. This report principally focuses on the themes of human rights, cross-gender staffing, Aboriginal women offenders, security classification, management of security incidents, segregation, programs and community transition.


Corruption and Fraud

Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) - Detecting Occupational Fraud in Canada: A Study of its Victims and Perpetrators
www.acfe.com/documents/rttn-canadian.pdf

This report produced by the ACFE includes the following sections: measuring the costs of occupational fraud, how occupational fraud is committed, victims of occupational fraud, detecting occupational fraud, limiting fraud losses, the perpetrators, case results, methodology, and about the ACFE. The document is also available in French: www.acfe.com/documents/rttn-french-canadian.pdf.

Canadian Anti-Fraud Call Centre Criminal Intelligence Analytical Unit - Statistical Reports
www.phonebusters.com/english/statistics.html

The Canadian Anti-Fraud Call Centre, otherwise known as PhoneBusters, releases both monthly summary reports and annual statistical reports on complaints received at the call centre relating to mass marketing fraud and identity theft activities.

Canadian Consumer Mass Marketing Fraud Survey - 2007
www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ic1.nsf/vwapj/Environics-CompetitionBureau-MMF-FinalRReport-Feb2008.pdf/$file/Environics-CompetitionBureau-MMF-FinalRReport-Feb2008.pdf

The Competition Bureau Canada commissioned the 2007 Canadian Consumer Mass Marketing Fraud Survey with the overall purpose of investigating the experiences and perceptions of a random selection of Canadians related to 12 specific types of consumer MMF activity. Those 12 types are prize lottery or sweepstakes fraud, West African or 419 fraud, employment / work from home fraud, cheque cashing / money transfer job fraud, overpayment for sale of merchandise fraud, advance fee loan fraud, upfront fee for credit card fraud, bill for unsuitable merchandise fraud, bogus health product or cure fraud, advance fee vacation fraud, high-pressure sales pitch vacation fraud and investment fraud.

The Changing Nature of Fraud in Canada
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0049885-002-XIE.pdf     

"This report provides a statistical profile of fraud in Canada. It examines trends in fraud offences, characteristics of incidents and offenders, as well as certain adult court and sentencing information."

Money laundering in Canada, 2009
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-005-x/2011001/article/11454-eng.pdf

This report offers data and analysis about money laundering in Canada in 2009, and examines the year-to-year changes as such.


Domestic Violence

Assaults Against Children and Youth in the Family, 1996
http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0119785-002-XIE.pdf


"This report uses statistical databases of police reported incidents across Canada to describe what is currently known from a criminal justice perspective about violence against children and youth in the family."

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile
This annual report provides the most current data on the nature and extent of family violence in Canada, as well as trends over time, as part of the ongoing initiative to inform policy makers and the public about family violence issues.

Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Final Report
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-224-XIE/free.htm

"The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) is the first nation-wide study to examine the incidence of reported child maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families
investigated by Canadian child welfare services. The primary objective of the CIS is to provide reliable estimates of the scope and characteristics of child abuse and neglect investigated by child welfare services
across Canada."

Children Witnessing Family Violence
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0060185-002-XIE.pdf

"Using data from the 1999 General Social Survey on Victimization (GSS), the 1993 Violence Against Women Survey (VAWS), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), this report presents estimates of the number of children in Canada who have witnessed violence in their homes in recent years, and compares the characteristics of these children and their families to children who have not witnessed violence."

National Trends in Intimate Partner Homicide, 1974-2000
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0050285-002-XIE.pdf

"The purpose of this report is to address two information gaps: (1) documentation of trends in spousal homicides as well as subgroup variations (i.e. common-law, separated and divorced partners, age group variations, etc.), and (2) identification of factors that may be associated with the decline. Using data from the Homicide Survey and a combination of other statistical data sources this report examines spousal homicide trends over the period 1974-2000."

Spousal Violence after Marital Separation
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0070185-002-XIE.pdf

"Using data from the 1999 General Social Survey, the 1993 Violence Against Women Survey (VAWS), the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Survey and the Homicide Survey, this report investigates the prevalence, nature and severity of violence that occurs following the breakdown of a marital union."

What are the trends in self-reported spousal violence in Canada?
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/89-630-XIE/2008001/article/10661-en.pdf

"Statistics Canada began to collect information on spousal violence against both women and men, through Statistics Canada’s
General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization in 1999. A random sample of approximately 24,000 Canadian women and
men aged 15 years and older, living in the 10 provinces were asked about violence that their marital or common-law partner
(current and previous) may have committed against them in the 5 years preceding the survey. Questions related to spousal
violence were repeated in the 2004 GSS and results permit the analysis of how spousal violence has changed between the
two survey cycles."

Drugs & Alcohol

Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS)
http://www.ccsa.ca/eng/priorities/research/canadianaddiction/pages/default.aspx

The Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) is a collaborative initiative sponsored by various organizations.  The key objectives of the CAS are (1) to determine the prevalence, incidence, and frequency of alcohol and other drug sue in the Canadian population aged 15 and older, (2) to assess the context of use and the extent of harms that result from those individuals who use drugs, (3) to identify the risk and protective factors related to the use and consequences of drug use, (4) to assess the public's opinions, views, and knowledge regarding existing and potential addiction policies, and (5) to identify emerging policy issues.

Drug Use and Offending
http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2002/qa02_2-qr02_2/qa02_2.pdf

This report by the Department of Justice includes the most recent statistics on drug use in Canada, the number of drug offences reported by police in the year 2002, and how the drug offence rate reported by the police has changed over the past 20 years.

Drug Situation in Canada
This report describes illicit drug trafficking activity in Canada.  It is based on information and intelligence gleaned from investigations and seizures conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and various Canadian agencies and departments involved in drug enforcement (website).

Evaluation of Progress in Drug Control - Organization of American States' Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
These reports, produced by the Organization of American States' Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD),  follows the progress of individual and collective efforts of all the countries participating in the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism, indicating both results achieved as well as obstacles faced by the countries. Other objectives of the MEM are: identifies the strengths, weaknesses, progress, and setbacks in each member state and of the hemisphere, in order to help orientat policies and programs to confront more effectively the drug problem; assists countries in generating internal support to fight the drug problem and stimulating change and development of the systems in drug control; and offers countries the opportunity to request technical or financial assistance and training to implement assigned recommendations from evaluation rounds. (website).

Illicit Drugs and Crime in Canada
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0019985-002-XIE.pdf

"This report focuses principally on criminal drug offences reported by Canadian police services. It sketches a statistical profile of drug crimes and drug offenders, while examining the various types of offences and drugs involved. The report also examines national trends as well as provincial/territorial comparisons."

The Potential Expansion of Methamphetamine Production and Distribution in Canada: A Background Study
www.carleton.ca/cifp/app/serve.php/1114.pdf

From the executive summary of this report: "the use of methamphetamine in Canada is low relative to the abuse of other substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. Overall, its use is still less than that of cocaine and heroin; however, its prevalence may be considered acute in certain regions, particularly in Western Canada. Provincially, methamphetamine abuse is higher in British Columbia and Alberta. There does seem to be evidence of a move eastwards as use has become more significant in Ontario and Quebec, and it has surfaced in rural communities in Saskatchewan and Manitoba."

Trends in Drug Offences and the Role of Alcohol and Drugs in Crime
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0010485-002-XIE.pdf

This report "describes changes in drug offences and impaired driving in Canada, and provides a broad examination of the relationships between drug and alcohol use, and crime. Trends in drug offences reported by police are examined, as well as recent conviction and sentencing data for adult and youth court cases relating to drug possession and trafficking."

United States - Canada Border Drug Threat Assessment
This report is prepared jointly by the governments of Canada and the United States to examine the extent of drug trafficking across their shared border. The report identifies the principle illicit substances that are smuggled across the border and the prevalence of each.


Female Offenders

Female Inmates, Aboriginal Inmates, and Inmates Serving Life Sentences: A One Day Snapshot
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0059985-002-XIE.pdf


"This report presents profiles of three segments of the inmate population: females, Aboriginal inmates, and inmates serving life sentences.  The report present data for these three groups from the One-Day
Snapshot survey of inmates in federal and provincial/territorial adult correctional facilities, including the number of inmates in custody, inmate characteristics, offences, sentence length, and accommodations."


Female Offenders in Canada
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/85-002-XIE2008001.pdf


Present information on the prevalence of crime by females, the processing of cases through the adult and youth court systems, and the number and characteristics of female adult offenders in the provincial/territorial and federal correctional systems.

Profile of Incarcerated Women Offenders (September 1999)
http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/prgrm/fsw/profiles/community-eng.shtml

This site gives demographic information on incarcerated women offenders including their age, marital status, race, length of sentence, and previous terms of incarceration.

Women Offenders Statistical Overview 2003
http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/prgrm/fsw/wos14/statisticaloverview_wos14-eng.shtml

Presents information about how effectively the Correctional Service of Canada is managing many of its operations as they relate to women offenders serving federal sentences. The report gives an institutional profile of incarcerated Federal women offenders.

Women in Canada: Women in the Criminal Justice System
These reports focus on the experiences of Canadian women in the criminal justice system, both as offenders and victims.


Firearms

Firearms and Violent Crime
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/85-002-XIE2008002.pdf

Using data from Statistics Canada’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) and Homicide Surveys, this Juristat examines the prevalence of firearm-related violent crime in Canada at the national, provincial/territorial and census metropolitan area levels. It presents the incidence and trends in overall firearm violence and the characteristics of those offences most often committed with a firearm. It also compares the incidence of firearm-related homicide in Canada to that in other countries. Finally, data from the Integrated Criminal Courts Survey is used to compare court processing and sentencing outcomes between firearm and non-firearm violent offences.


Hate Crime

Annual Audits of Anti-Semitic Incidents in Canada
These reports offer statistics and analysis of anti-semitic incidents in Canada.

Hate Crime in Canada
This report aims to address our understanding of the nature and extent of hate crime in Canada and presents the results of the Hate Crime Pilot Survey (HCPS) undertaken by the CCJS in collaboration with 12 major police forces across the country. These papers also draw on other available data sources in order to provide contextual information on hate crime, and to attempt to quantify its occurrence.

Police-Reported Hate Crime in Canada
These reports lay out and analyze hate crime data from police services.

Visible Minorities and Victimization - 2004
www.statcan.ca/english/research/85F0033MIE/85F0033MIE2008015.pdf

Using data from the 2001 Census of Population and self-reported data from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on victimization, this profile examines certain socio-demographic and economic characteristics of visible minorities in Canada followed by an analysis of the rates and characteristics of violent crimes involving visible minority victims. It also provides information on visible minorities’ perceptions of safety and of the criminal justice system.


Human Rights

Annual Reports to Congress on Human Rights Practices - Canada
These reports, produced by the U.S. Department of State, to the U.S. Congress. The law provides that the Secretary of State shall transmit a "full and complete report regarding the status of internationally recognized human rights, within the meaning of subsection (A) in countries that receive assistance under this part, and (B) in all other foreign countries which are members of the United Nations and which are not otherwise the subject of a human rights report under this Act." Reports on several countries are included that do not fall into the categories established by these statutes and that thus are not covered by the congressional requirement. The reports cover internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights, as set forth in the Univeral Declaration of Human Rights. (website).

Annual Reports to Congress on International Religious Freedom - Canada
These reports, produced by the U.S. Department of State, describe the status of religious freedom in Canada, government policies violating religious belief and practices of groups, religious denominations, and individuals, and U.S. policies to promote religious freedom around the world. It is submitted in compliance with the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.


Juvenile Justice

2002 Canadian Police Survey on Youth Gangs
http://www.astwood.ca/assets/gangs_e.pdf

The purpose of this survey is to assess the extent and characteristics of the youth gang problem in communities throughout Canada, as reported by law enforcement agencies. Since this is the first national statistical snapshot of the youth gang problem, the results of this survey can be used as a baseline for measuring changes over time in the level of reported youth gang activity.

The Development of Police-reported Delinquency Among Canadian Youth Born in 1987 and 1990
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-561-m/85-561-m2007009-eng.htm

This report examines the development over childhood and adolescence of the recorded criminal activity of two cohorts of Canadians, born in 1987 and 1990. Data are drawn from the Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2) for 1995 to 2005.

Female Young Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends
http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/briefs/b18/b18e-eng.shtml

This report is a summary and presentation of recent trends involving female young offenders in Canada. Data is derived from the Uniform Crime Report Survey, the Youth Court Survey and the Corrections Key Indicator Report, all published by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Where available, the analyses in this report examine female young offender trends over the past 5 years.

Male Young Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends
http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r79/r79e-eng.shtml

This report is a summary and presentation of recent trends involving male young offenders in Canada. The three data sources used in compiling this report are The Uniform Crime Report Survey, the Youth Court Survey, and the Correction Key Indicator Report. The analyses in this report examined male young offender trends over the past five years.

Problem Behavior and Delinquency in Children and Youth
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/85-002-x2001004-eng.pdf

Using data from Statistics Canada’s National Longitudinal Survey on Children and Youth, this report examines delinquency as reported by youths between 10 and 13 years of age.

Sentencing of Young Offenders in Canada, 1989/99
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0070085-002-XIE.pdf

"This report seeks to improve understanding of youth sentencing activity in provincial and territorial youth courts in 1998/99 and to provide baseline statistical data to the youth justice community. Comparisons of youth receiving various dispositions are made on the basis of age, sex, nature of charge, number of charges, and prior convictions."

Youth Crime in Canada, 2006
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/85-002-XIE2008003.pdf

"This Juristat presents a picture of youth crime in Canada, as reported to the police and examines trends in the youth crime rate since its peak in 1991 as well as recent trends in crimes committed by youth, with particular reference to the period following the implemenation of the YCJA [Youth Criminal Justice Act of 2003]."

Youth Correctional Statistics
This "Juristat article provides a statistical overview of youth admitted to and released from custody and community services in Canada."

Youth Court Statistics
This report "presents data obtained from the Youth Court Survey (YCS), which is conducted by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) in collaboration with provincial and territorial government departments responsible for youth courts. The YCS collects data from youth courts on persons aged 12 to 17 at the time of the offence, who appear in court accused of offences under federal statutes including the Criminal Code of Canada, the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), the YCJA, the YOA, and all other federal statute offences (website)."

Youth Custody and Community Service in Canada
"In an effort to reduce reliance on the incarceration of young persons, the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) places emphasis on diversion from the justice system, reserving custody sentences for only the most serious offenders. The range of sentencing options has also been expanded, with increased emphasis on rehabilitation."  This report "describes the impact of the YCJA during its first year of implementation
and shows the notable decreases in the number of incarcerated youth in Canada (website)."

Youth Violent Crime
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0139985-002-XIE.pdf

"The purpose of this report is to measure the scope of violent crime by female and male youths at the national and provincial levels and in selected metropolitan areas, to determine the degree of change observed between 1988 and 1998, to identify the characteristics of violent crime by youths and to compare it to that of adults and to create a portrait of violent young offenders (male and female) and their victims."


Law and the Courts

Adult Criminal Court Statistics
This report "summarises trends from adult provincial/territorial criminal courts in nine provinces and one territory which provided data to the Adult Criminal Court Survey (ACCS) for the 2003/04 reference year. In this report, information is presented on the characteristics of cases and accused persons, the number of appearances, percentage of guilty cases, sentencing trends and related issues (website)."
Alternative Measures in Canada
"The purpose of this report is to provide information on the administration of alternative measures in Canada, and its relative success in diverting individuals out of the court system."

Case Processing in Criminal Courts, 1999/00
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0010285-002-XIE.pdf

"The primary focus of this report is the nature and extent of case processing time (elapsed time), with emphasis on those factors which have the greatest impact on the length of time it takes a case to be processed in the court system."

Court Careers of a Canadian Birth Cohort
www.statcan.ca/english/research/85-561-MIE/85-561-MIE2005006.pdf

"This is the first quasi-national Canadian study of the criminal careers of a birth cohort. It uses linked data from the Youth Court Survey and Adult Criminal Court Survey to describe the court careers up to the 22nd birthday of Canadians born in 1979/80. The study includes six provinces — Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta — accounting for
approximately 78% of the population of Canada."


Criminal Prosecutions: Personnel and Expenditures 1996-2001
www.statcan.ca/bsolc/english/bsolc?catno=85-402-X&CHROPG=1

The reports provides information the number of staffs and the amount of expenditures regarding prosecution in Canada.


Legal Aid in Canada, 1996-1997
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0109885-002-XIE.pdf

"This report provides information on the organization and costs of legal aid in Canada. It includes information on legal aid delivery systems, revenues and expenditures, and applications for legal aid."

Legal Aid in Canada: Resources and Caseload Statistics
"This publication provides an analytical overview of the revenues, expenditures and caseloads of legal aid plans in Canada. It includes information at the provincial/territorial level on legal aid delivery systems, sources of revenue, expenditures on legal aid services, and legal aid caseloads. Some data in tabular format are provided. Complete data are available from the new shelf table product entitled Legal aid in Canada: resource and caseload data tables, catalogue number 85F0028XIE.".

Offences against the Administration of Justice, 1994/95 to 2003/04
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0010685-002-XIE.pdf

"Offences against the administration of justice includes sections on corruption and disobedience, misleading justice, and escapes and rescues. Other Criminal Code offences concerning, for example, failure to comply with a probation order or a breach of order of long-term supervision are also included in offences against the administration of justice."

Sentencing in Adult Criminal Courts, 1999-2000
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0100185-002-XIE.pdf

"This report presents an overview of 1999/00 sentencing information for adult criminal court cases heard and convicted in provincial and territorial courts and two Superior Court jurisdictions (Alberta and the Yukon) that provided data to the Adult Criminal Court Survey (ACCS)."


Organized Crime

Annual Report on Organized Crime in Canada
The CISC (Criminal Intelligence Service Canada) Annual Report on Organized Crime in Canada is the primary way for CISC to inform the public of organized and serious crime issues as they affect Canada.  Contributions to the report derive from CISC's approximately 380 law enforcement member agencies.

Creating an Organized Crime SENTINEL: Towards the Development and Implementation of a Strategic Early Warning Methodology for Law Enforcement
www.carleton.ca/cifp/app/serve.php/1072.pdf

The purpose of this paper is to present the methodological approach developed by the Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC) in partnership with the Country Indicators for Foreign Policy (CIFP) to develop a fully functional strategic early warning system (SEWS) for organized and serious crime in Canada..

Organized Crime in Canada: An Investigation into the Feasibility of Collecting Police-Level Data
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-556-x/85-556-x2002001-eng.pdf

Provides information on how to develop a strategy to collect quantitative data on organized crime in Canada.  This feasibility study would help guide the development of ongoing data collection to gather baseline data on the nature and extent of organized crime in Canada.


Police and Law Enforcement

Police Resources in Canada
This report examines data collected through the annual “Police Administration Survey” conducted by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. This is the primary mechanism for the collection of data on police personnel and expenditures from each municipal, provincial and federal police service in Canada.

Private Security and Public Policing in Canada
"This report presents a socio-demographic profile of police officers and individuals working in private security occupations.  Public police and private security personnel are compared in terms of their respective roles and responsibilities, and the types of governance under which each operates (website)."


Research & Statistics

Upheaval in Haiti: The Criminal Threat to Canada - A Background Study
www.carleton.ca/cifp/app/serve.php/1255.pdf

"This report attempts to ascertain the current extent of any criminal Haitian-Canadian nexus, evaluate its likely evolution, and assess its
probable impact on Canada, with a particular emphasis on the Montréal region."


Sex Crime

Sexual Assault in Canada
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2008019-eng.pdf

"Only a small proportion of sexual offences are formally documented, the prevalence of sexual assault in Canada has been difficult to quantify. Using data from the 1999 and 2004 General Social Surveys (GSS) on victimization and police-reported data derived from the aggregate Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR) and the incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2), the prevalence and nature of sexual assault in Canada is examined. Specifically, this report examines rates of sexual victimization; characteristics of victims and offenders; rates of police reporting; reasons for not reporting to police; the emotional effects of sexual victimization; as well as fear of crime and the use of precautionary measures by victims of sexual assault."

Sexual Offences in Canada
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0060385-002-XIE.pdf

"This report presents statistical data on the extent and nature of sexual offences, and provides qualitative information on related issues of child pornography, trafficking in persons for the purpose of sexual exploitation, and child prostitution. The data used in the report are from Statistics Canada and include police statistics from the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Survey1 and the Homicide Survey, and court data from the Adult Criminal Court Survey and the Youth Court Survey."

Sexual Offenders
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0039985-002-XIE.pdf

"This report presents statistical data on the prevalence of sexual offences reported to the police and the characteristics of the offenders and victims involved. It also highlights some of the salient issues associated with the response of the justice system and the public to offenders and their victims. Data sources include statistics collected by the police, courts and correctional institutions."


Victims of Crime

Canada's Shelters for Abused Women   
This report "presents a profile of shelters providing residential services to abused women and their children across Canada. Additionally, selected characteristics of the women and children using these facilities are presented. Data for this report come primarily from the Transition Home Survey (THS)."

Child and Youth Victims of Police-reported Violent Crime, 2008
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2010023-eng.pdf

This report " focuses primarily on 2008 police-reported data obtained from the Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Survey." Specifically, "[t]his report analyzes the nature and extent fo police-reported violence committed against children and youth under the age of 18. It examines differences in victimization based on sex and age of victims, type of offence, prevalence across the provinces and territories, relationship to perpetrator, weapon used and level of injury. It also presents information on trends over time."

Children and Youth as Victims of Violent Crime
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0010585-002-XIE.pdf

This report "explores police-reported data to shed light on both the nature and extent to which children and youth are victimized. Included in this analysis is a description of who is most vulnerable to what offences and by whom. Offences that are examined include physical assaults, sexual assaults, and other violations involving violence or the threat of violence (including robbery, extortion, uttering threats and criminal harassment), homicides and abductions."

Criminal Harassment
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0110085-002-XIE.pdf

"This report outlines the characteristics of criminal harassment incidents as well as the characteristics of the accused and victim for 1999, and identifies trends over the past five years. (Trend data are only available for the five year period from 1995 to 1999.)."

Criminal Harassment in Canada, 2009
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-005-x/2011001/article/11407-eng.htm

"Using data from the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey and the Adult Criminal Court Survey, this Juristat Bulletin presents the most up-to-date information on police-reported incidents and court casesinvolving criminal harassment."

Criminal Victimization in Canada
     
"As part of its General Social Survey program, Statistics Canada has conducted a survey on victimization. This survey collected information on the extent and nature of self-reported criminal victimization, the impact and consequences of crime to the victim, reporting to the police and the use of informal and formal services. Information was also collected on fear of crime, and public perceptions of crime and the criminal justice system."

Criminal Victimization: International Perspective
"The purpose of this report is to present the results of the ICVS and to make comparisons to the previous survey cycles."

Criminal Victimization in the Workplace
www.statcan.ca/english/research/85F0033MIE/85F0033MIE2007013.pdf

Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), this Profile examines these data, provides a detailed look at violent workplace incidents and identifies the risk factors that are related to these incidents. The report also examines the aftermath and consequences of violence in the workplace.

Fear of Crime and the Neighbourhood Context in Canandian Cities
www.statcan.ca/english/research/85-561-MIE/85-561-MIE2008013.htm

The authors of this paper undertook a study of whether the chances of experiencing fear of crime varied across Canadian urban neighbourhoods, and whether factors associated with individuals and their neighbourhoods explained this variation. Also, this study aimed to understand how Canadians' perceptions of neighbourhood crime and disorder influenced their chances of experiencing fear. Analyses were based on data from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization and the 2001 Census.

Household Income and Victimization in Canada, 2004
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2009020-eng.pdf

"The risk of becoming the victim of violent crime or household property crime can vary according to the mix of social, economic and demographic factors that characterize an individual's circumstances. Income is one such factor. Using data primarily from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS), this report profiles violent and household victimization among Canadians from low-income households (i.e., under $15,000). The report also provides information on who victims turn to for help, perceptions of neighbourhood safety as well as fear of crime among Canadians from low-income households."

Impacts and Consequences of Victimization, GSS 2004
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/85-002-XIE2007001.pdf

This analysis shows that not only do victims incur physical, emotional and financial costs as a direct result of their victimization, but that their perceptions of their neighbourhoods and personal safety and their opinions concerning the police system are affected by their prior victimization experience. The analysis highlights the fact that regardless of crime experiences, women tend to express more fear related to crime than men and when women are victims of crime the impact on their emotions, their use of precautionary measures and their sense of security seems to be greater relative to men.

Immigrants and Victimization, 2004
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2008018-eng.pdf

Using data from the 2006 Census of Population and self-reported data from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on victimization, this profile examines certain socio-demographic and economic characteristics of immigrants in Canada followed by an analysis of the rates and characteristics of violent crimes involving immigrant victims. It also provides information on immigrants perceptions of safety, of the criminal justice system and of discrimination.

An International Perspective on Criminal Victimization
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2008010/article/10745-eng.pdf

"While data from the international survey are not directly comparable with data from Canada's national survey of victimization (GSS) given different definitions of criminal offences, methodology and samples, these data allow for a comparisons of Canada's results to those of other countries who participated in the 2004-2005 ICVS survey. The purpose of this Juristat article is to highlight those results, focusing on victimization prevalence rates, rates of reporting to the police and respondents' satisfaction with the police work."

Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2013
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11766-eng.pdf

"This Juristat article on violence against women is organized into four sections: prevalence and severity of violence against women, risk factors associated with violence against women, impact of violence against women and responses to violence against women. To provide a comprehensive picture of the extent and nature of violence against women, both police-reported crime data and self-reported victimzation data are used. The analysis also draws on information from two administrative surveys, namely the Transition Home Survey and the Victim Services Survey."

Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2006
www.statcan.ca/english/research/85-570-XIE/85-570-XIE2006001.pdf

Indicators in this document focus on acts of violence against women that have been quantified using statistical survey techniques. The report focuses on behaviours that could trigger a criminal justice response—acts of violence that qualify as offences under the Criminal Code. The primary data sources that Statistics Canada uses to measure violence against women are victimization surveys, and data collected by police agencies, adult courts, emergency shelters for women and their children, and other service agencies providing assistance to crime victims.

Missing and Abducted Children
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0029885-002-XIE.pdf

"This report highlights available data to provide a perspective on missing children in Canada and show what is being done to assist in their location and recovery. It focuses more specifically on parental and non-parental abductions."


Multiple Victimization in Canada - 2004
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2010022-eng.pdf

From the introduction: "a large proportion of all victimization incidents are experienced by a relatively small number of victims who experienced multiple incidents. According to the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization, a little more than 100% of the population aged 15 and over were the victims of more than one crime during the 12 monthws preceding the survey, representing 60% of all criminal incidents. If one considers only violent crimes, 2% of the population accounted for 60% of all violent victimization reported to the GSS. Given that a small proportion of individuals and households face a significant proportion of crimes, as a result determining which characteristics increase a person's risk of being victimized will help to improve the effectiveness of crime prevention measures, and perhaps help prevent further incidents of victimization."

An Overview of the Differences Between Police-Reported and Victim-Reported Crime
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-542-XIE/85-542-XIE.pdf

Provides information on differences between the UCR and the GSS (General Social Survey).
The purpose of this report is to reduce the level of confusion arising from the use of crime data originating from two very different sources (i.e., the UCR and the GSS) and to inform discussions about which is the “better” measure of crime. It explains why the findings based on these data sources diverge and summarizes the major differences between the two surveys.


Self-Reported Internet Victimization in Canada, 2009
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11530-eng.pdf

"Drawing on the GSS [General Social Survey] data, this Juristat article presents information on Internet victimization as self-reported by Canadians. In particular, it examines the socio-demographic and economic characteristics (such as age, level of education and income status) and Internet use characteristics of those who have been victimized. This article also examines security concerns of Canadian Internet users as well as hate content found on the Internet."

Seniors as Victims of Crime
www.statcan.ca/english/research/85F0033MIE/85F0033MIE2007014.pdf

Using data from self-reported victimization and police-reported surveys, this profile examines the nature and prevalence of violent and property crimes against seniors. The report also examines characteristics of offences committed against seniors, the level of reporting to the police and the proportion of incidents involving weapons and causing injuries to senior victims.

Sexual Orientation and Victimization
www.statcan.ca/english/research/85F0033MIE/85F0033MIE2008016.pdf

This profile examines victimization rates, perceptions of discrimination, fear of crime and attitudes towards the justice system among gays, lesbians and bisexuals.

Victimization and Offending Among the Aboriginal Population in Canada
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/85-002-XIE2006003.pdf

This report "examines particular factors which could be related to the high levels of representation in the criminal justice system, as well as information on Aboriginal peoples’ fear of crime and their perceptions of the justice system."

Victim Services in Canada
"To date, the only source of national data on services for victims of crime has been Statistics Canada’s Transition Home Survey that collects information on residential services for abused women and their children. To address the lack of information in this area, the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS), through funding from Justice Canada’s Policy Centre for Victim Issues (website)."

Violence Committed by Strangers
www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/85-002-XIE/0099885-002-XIE.pdf

Violent victimization of Aboriginal people in the Canadian provinces, 2009
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11415-eng.pdf

"This Juristat article presents information from the GSS (General Social Survey) on criminal victimizations as reported by Aborignal people living in the ten provinces during 2009, with a particular focus on violent victimizations. It analyzes the characteristics associated with such incidents, including the socio-demographic risk factors, consequences of victimization, reasons for reporting (and not reporting) incidents to police, perceptions of personal safety and perceptions of the criminal justice system. In addition, information on Aboriginal victims and persons accused of homicide is presented."

Visible Minorities and Victimization
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2008015-eng.pdf

"Using data from the 2001 Census of Population and self-reported data from the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS) on victimization, this profile examines certain socio-demographic and economic characteristics of visible minorities in Canada followed by an analysis of the rates and characteristics of violent crimes involving visible minority victims. It also provides information on visible minorities perceptions of safety, discrimination and of the criminal justice system."